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Chemical Compound Review

puromycin     (2R)-2-amino-N- [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6...

Synonyms: Puromicina, Puromycine, Stylomycin, Puromycinum, Stillomycin, ...
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Disease relevance of Achromycin

  • In contrast, infection with poliovirus type 1 or vesicular stomatitis virus, or treatment with puromycin (50 microgram/ml) resulted in a significant decrease in surface HLA [1].
  • The effects of experimental nephrosis in rats, produced by puromycin aminonucleoside, include an elevation of plasma levels of all lipoprotein density classes and the appearance of high density lipoprotein (HDL) rich in apoprotein (apo) A-I and deficient in apo A-IV and apo E [2].
  • The maximal hydrolytic activity of Na-K-ATPase is specifically increased in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) of rats with puromycin-induced nephrotic syndrome (NS) [3].
  • Finally, active targeted protease did not affect proteinuria in the nonimmune mediated nephrosis induced by puromycin aminonucleoside [4].
  • The more pronounced effects of TNF were accompanied by an augmented surface membrane depolarization rate and were insensitive to both pertussis toxin and calcium ion chelation, but were negated by concomitant incubation with puromycin or cycloheximide during priming [5].

Psychiatry related information on Achromycin

  • Neurohypophyseal hormones, analogs, and fragments: their effect on puromycin-induced amnesia [6].
  • Thus, the activity of aminopeptidase N in the hippocampus and soluble puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase in the frontal cortex were found to be lower in rats experiencing naloxone precipitated withdrawal symptoms, compared to the corresponding controls [7].
  • It has previously been shown that expression of maze-learning in mice is blocked for long periods of time by puromycin injected intracerebrally one or more days after the training experience [8].
  • Prevention of memory loss following puromycin treatment [9].
  • Previous work demonstrating that puromycin interferes with correct choice retention five hours after training taken together with our results demonstrating no effect of scopolamine on such retention, suggests that puromycin does not produce its amnesic effect on choice behavior by interferring with central cholinergic synaptic processes [10].

High impact information on Achromycin

  • While pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the peptidyl transferase activity of the mutant ribosomes reveals substantially reduced rates of peptide bond formation using the minimal substrate puromycin, their rates of peptide bond formation are unaffected when the substrates are intact aminoacyl-tRNAs [11].
  • These aqueous pores are similar in conductance to those previously observed in mammalian endoplasmic reticulum when puromycin is used to release and thus unplug nascent translocating chains [12].
  • Translation of mRNA derived directly from a purified membrane fraction or by puromycin release from that fraction, however, showed the synthesis of a small proportion of these proteins on polysomes that are membrane-associated [13].
  • Exposure to cycloheximide or puromycin for 14 hr results in a 30 fold increase in the number of small circles per cell, but reduces the mean length of the circular DNA to 0.3 mum [14].
  • 3H-labeled mRNA from sea urchin gastrula was prepared by puromycin release from polysomes and used in DNA-driven hybridization reactions [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Achromycin


Biological context of Achromycin

  • The sole gene of unknown function in the integron, orf5, resembles a puromycin-modifying enzyme from an antibiotic producing bacterium [21].
  • Here we report rapid kinetics of the peptidyl transferase reaction with puromycin at rates up to 50 s(-1) [22].
  • Inhibitors of protein synthesis and glycosylation, puromycin and monensin, respectively, abrogated production of Xa receptors in culture [23].
  • Cell viability and protein synthesis were required for generation of the activity as shown by inhibitory effects of cell lysis before culture and by effects observed after including puromycin in cultures with viable cells [24].
  • The inhibitory effect of IL 1 on insulin secretion also requires mRNA translation, because three structurally distinct inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, anisomycin, and puromycin) prevent IL 1-induced inhibition of insulin secretion when added to islets after the 1-h exposure to IL 1 [25].

Anatomical context of Achromycin

  • These polysomes are released from the membrane upon treatment with puromycin and high salt [26].
  • Acid-soluble extracts of normal human fibroblasts (IMR 90 cells) exposed to [3H]aminonucleoside of puromycin ([3H]AMS) contained larger amounts of unchanged AMS than did similar extracts of their transformed counterparts (AG 2804 cells) [27].
  • The half-lives of ALDH2 protein in HeLa cell lines expressing ALDH2*1, ALDH2*2, or both were determined by the rate of loss of immunoreactive protein after inhibition of protein synthesis with puromycin and by pulse-chase experiments [28].
  • Incubation of thyroid slices with puromycin does not eliminate refractoriness [29].
  • Treatment of oocytes with puromycin did not prevent this increase in S6 kinase activity, suggesting activation rather than synthesis of the enzyme [30].

Associations of Achromycin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Achromycin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Achromycin


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  2. Catabolism of very low density lipoproteins in experimental nephrosis. Garber, D.W., Gottlieb, B.A., Marsh, J.B., Sparks, C.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanism of enhanced Na-K-ATPase activity in cortical collecting duct from rats with nephrotic syndrome. Féraille, E., Vogt, B., Rousselot, M., Barlet-Bas, C., Cheval, L., Doucet, A., Favre, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
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  5. Disparate effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on early neutrophil respiratory burst and fungicidal responses to Candida albicans hyphae in vitro. Diamond, R.D., Lyman, C.A., Wysong, D.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Neurohypophyseal hormones, analogs, and fragments: their effect on puromycin-induced amnesia. Walter, R., Hoffman, P.L., Flexner, J.B., Flexner, L.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of morphine administration and its withdrawal on rat brain aminopeptidase activities. Irazusta, J., Larrinaga, G., Agirregoitia, N., Varona, A., Casis, L. Regul. Pept. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Puromycin's suppression of memory in mice as affected by caffeine. Flexner, J.B., Flexner, L.B. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1975) [Pubmed]
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  10. Effects of pre-training administration of scopolamine on learning and retention in the cockroach, P. americana. Barraco, D.A., Eisenstein, E.M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. The active site of the ribosome is composed of two layers of conserved nucleotides with distinct roles in peptide bond formation and peptide release. Youngman, E.M., Brunelle, J.L., Kochaniak, A.B., Green, R. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Signal peptides open protein-conducting channels in E. coli. Simon, S.M., Blobel, G. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation of separate mRNAs for alpha- and beta-tubulin and characterization of the corresponding in vitro translation products. Cleveland, D.W., Kirschner, M.W., Cowan, N.J. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Small circular DNA in Drosophila melanogaster. Stanfield, S., Helinski, D.R. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Structural genes adjacent to interspersed repetitive DNA sequences. Davidson, E.H., Hough, B.R., Klein, W.H., Britten, R.J. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Essential fatty acid deficiency ameliorates acute renal dysfunction in the rat after the administration of the aminonucleoside of puromycin. Harris, K.P., Lefkowith, J.B., Klahr, S., Schreiner, G.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Loss of glomerular foot processes is associated with uncoupling of podocalyxin from the actin cytoskeleton. Takeda, T., McQuistan, T., Orlando, R.A., Farquhar, M.G. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Cloning and expression of the rat nephrin homolog. Ahola, H., Wang, S.X., Luimula, P., Solin, M.L., Holzman, L.B., Holthöfer, H. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of the aminonucleoside of puromycin on glomerular epithelial cells in vitro. Fishman, J.A., Karnovsky, M.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Transcription- and translation-dependent changes in membrane dynamics in bacteria: testing the transertion model for domain formation. Binenbaum, Z., Parola, A.H., Zaritsky, A., Fishov, I. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Transposon Tn21, flagship of the floating genome. Liebert, C.A., Hall, R.M., Summers, A.O. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Important contribution to catalysis of peptide bond formation by a single ionizing group within the ribosome. Katunin, V.I., Muth, G.W., Strobel, S.A., Wintermeyer, W., Rodnina, M.V. Mol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Assembly of the prothrombin activator complex on rabbit alveolar macrophage high-affinity factor Xa receptors. A kinetic study. McGee, M.P., Rothberger, H. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Generation of coagulation factor V activity by cultured rabbit alveolar macrophages. Rothberger, H., McGee, M.P. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Interleukin 1 inhibits insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreatic islets by a process that requires gene transcription and mRNA translation. Hughes, J.H., Colca, J.R., Easom, R.A., Turk, J., McDaniel, M.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. How a single Sindbis virus mRNA directs the synthesis of one soluble protein and two integral membrane glycoproteins. Wirth, D.F., Katz, F., Small, B., Lodish, H.F. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Basis for the differential action of aminonucleoside on normal and transformed human fibroblasts. Albanese, E.A., Studzinski, G.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. The mutation in the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene responsible for alcohol-induced flushing increases turnover of the enzyme tetramers in a dominant fashion. Xiao, Q., Weiner, H., Crabb, D.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Exposure of thyroid slices to thyroid-stimulating hormone induces refractoriness of the cyclic AMP system to subsequent hormone stimulation. Shuman, S.J., Zor, U., Chayoth, R., Field, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Activation of a ribosomal protein S6 protein kinase in Xenopus oocytes by insulin and insulin-receptor kinase. Stefanovic, D., Erikson, E., Pike, L.J., Maller, J.L. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Cloning of the complete biosynthetic gene cluster for an aminonucleoside antibiotic, puromycin, and its regulated expression in heterologous hosts. Lacalle, R.A., Tercero, J.A., Jiménez, A. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Protein synthesis inhibitors differentially superinduce c-fos and c-jun by three distinct mechanisms: lack of evidence for labile repressors. Edwards, D.R., Mahadevan, L.C. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  38. Metabolite of SIR2 reaction modulates TRPM2 ion channel. Grubisha, O., Rafty, L.A., Takanishi, C.L., Xu, X., Tong, L., Perraud, A.L., Scharenberg, A.M., Denu, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (107-139) stimulates interleukin-6 expression in human osteoblastic cells. De Miguel, F., Martinez-Fernandez, P., Guillen, C., Valin, A., Rodrigo, A., Martinez, M.E., Esbrit, P. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  42. Localization of the puromycin binding site on the large ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli by immunoelectron microscopy. Lührmann, R., Bald, R., Stöffler-Meilicke, M., Stöffler, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
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