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Gene Review

RCNMVs1gp3  -  capsid protein

Red clover necrotic mosaic virus

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Disease relevance of RCNMVs1gp3

  • The virion capsid has prominent surface protrusions and subunits with a clearly defined shell and protruding domains [1].
  • Similar mutations introduced into the related Red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid protein gene failed to induce the packaging but nonsystemic movement phenotype [2].
  • The tentative phylogenetic tree derived from the capsid protein alignment separated into three main lineages: (I) carmo-, tombus- and dianthoviruses, (II) southern bean mosaic, tobacco necrosis and maize chlorotic mottle viruses, and (III) luteoviruses [3].
  • Phylogeny of capsid proteins of small icosahedral RNA plant viruses [3].
  • Comparison of the alignment of the proteins of this family with the sequences of other capsid proteins of icosahedral RNA viruses revealed more distant similarities to the satellites of tobacco necrosis, panicum mosaic, tobacco mosaic and maize white line mosaic viruses, as well as to nepo- and comoviruses [3].

High impact information on RCNMVs1gp3

  • An RCNMV virion has approximately 390 +/- 30 Ca(2+) ions bound to the capsid and 420 +/- 25 Mg(2+) ions thought to be in the interior of the capsid [1].
  • The 5' leader sequence of the capsid protein sgRNA is 62 nucleotides, contains a 14-nucleotide putative promoter sequence homologous to the RNA-1 5' terminus, and exhibits a high level of similarity with the tobacco mosaic virus 5' leader translational enhancer element omega [4].
  • Amino acid sequence alignment of the 38K protein with the corresponding RCNMV and SCNMV polypeptides indicate that this is the viral capsid protein [5].
  • The capsid protein and the RNA sequence encoding the capsid protein were dispensable for infection of the inoculated leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii at both 15 and 25 degrees [6].
  • We conclude that the RCNMV 35-kDa movement protein is required for cell-to-cell movement, whereas the capsid protein is not necessary for cell-to-cell movement and, depending on host genotype and environmental factors, may or may not be required for long distance transport [6].

Biological context of RCNMVs1gp3

  • Given the extensive amino acid sequence similarity of RCNMV, CarMV, and TCV polymerase and capsid proteins, we speculate that they are closely related, evolutionarily [7].
  • The RNA contains three large open reading frames (ORFs): the 5' proximal ORF, encoding a 27-kDa polypeptide; the internal ORF, coding for a 57-kDa polypeptide; and the 3' terminal ORF, encoding the 37-kDa capsid protein [7].
  • The eight-nucleotide TA loop base pairs with eight complementary nucleotides in the TA binding sequence (TABS) of the capsid protein subgenomic promoter on RNA-1 and trans-activates subgenomic RNA synthesis [8].

Associations of RCNMVs1gp3 with chemical compounds

  • Western blot analysis using an antiserum against the C-terminal domain of the putative CP and RT-PCR analysis using primers specific to DR1L RNA of fractions after sucrose density gradient centrifugation of RGSV nucleoproteins indicated that DR1L RNA is associated with the 28-kDa putative CP but not with the 36-kDa RGSV CP [9].
  • Depletion of both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions from RCNMV leads to significant structural changes, including (i) formation of 11- to 13-A-diameter channels that extend through the capsid and (ii) significant reorganization within the interior of the capsid [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RCNMVs1gp3


  1. Removal of divalent cations induces structural transitions in red clover necrotic mosaic virus, revealing a potential mechanism for RNA release. Sherman, M.B., Guenther, R.H., Tama, F., Sit, T.L., Brooks, C.L., Mikhailov, A.M., Orlova, E.V., Baker, T.S., Lommel, S.A. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. A single amino acid mutation in the carnation ringspot virus capsid protein allows virion formation but prevents systemic infection. Sit, T.L., Haikal, P.R., Callaway, A.S., Lommel, S.A. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Phylogeny of capsid proteins of small icosahedral RNA plant viruses. Dolja, V.V., Koonin, E.V. J. Gen. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Mapping of the red clover necrotic mosaic virus subgenomic RNA. Zavriev, S.K., Hickey, C.M., Lommel, S.A. Virology (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Nucleotide sequence of carnation ringspot dianthovirus RNA-1. Ryabov, E.V., Generozov, E.V., Kendall, T.L., Lommel, S.A., Zavriev, S.K. J. Gen. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The roles of the red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid and cell-to-cell movement proteins in systemic infection. Xiong, Z., Kim, K.H., Giesman-Cookmeyer, D., Lommel, S.A. Virology (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of red clover necrotic mosaic virus RNA-1. Xiong, Z., Lommel, S.A. Virology (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Structural characterization of an intermolecular RNA-RNA interaction involved in the transcription regulation element of a bipartite plant virus. Guenther, R.H., Sit, T.L., Gracz, H.S., Dolan, M.A., Townsend, H.L., Liu, G., Newman, W.H., Agris, P.F., Lommel, S.A. Nucleic Acids Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Nucleotide sequence of a Dianthovirus RNA1-like RNA found in grassy stunt-diseased rice plants. Miranda, G.J., Aliyari, R., Shirako, Y. Arch. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Detection of the movement protein of red clover necrotic mosaic virus in a cell wall fraction from infected Nicotiana clevelandii plants. Osman, T.A., Buck, K.W. J. Gen. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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