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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Trifolium


High impact information on Trifolium


Chemical compound and disease context of Trifolium


Biological context of Trifolium

  • Nucleotide sequence of additional members of the gene family encoding chalcone synthase in Trifolium subterraneum [15].
  • Characterization of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase multigene family in Trifolium subterraneum [16].
  • We hypothesized that we would be able to detect a decrease in the Ki-67 proliferative index during the late follicular phase after a 3-month course of approximately 50 mg red clover isoflavones [17].
  • The red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus (RCNMV) genome is split between two essentially nonhomologous ssRNAs of 3.9 kb (RNA-1) and 1.45 kb (RNA-2) which are each capped at the 5' terminus with m7GpppA. cDNA clones short of full length by several nucleotides at both termini have been generated to both RNAs [18].
  • In contrast, in a strain RBL5045 (R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii strain RCR5, cured of its Sym plasmid) background, nodulation on Vicia sativa is severely impaired, whereas nodulation on Vicia hirsuta and Trifolium subterraneum is apparently unaltered [19].

Anatomical context of Trifolium

  • CONCLUSION: In this small pilot study, we did not find, using immunohistochemical quantification of the Ki-67 antigen, that red clover isoflavones had an antiproliferative effect in the endometrium [17].
  • Using 2 separate cell assays, this study examined the ability of the isoflavones found in red clover to inhibit COX enzyme activity in both the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and human monocytes [20].
  • The results demonstrated that prostate, but not testis, size was significantly reduced over 28 days of a red clover isoflavone supplemented diet [21].
  • In trifluralin treated seedlings of Trifolium repens, root tips increased in diameter and decreased in length, cell elongation was decreased, cell wall deposition was abnormal, root hairs were deformed, and a marked reduction was seen in the number of infection threads induced by the bacterial symbionts [22].

Associations of Trifolium with chemical compounds


Gene context of Trifolium

  • Red clover products showed a higher affinity to AR and PR than soy products, which is explained by the higher amount of isoflavones present [28].
  • Bioassay-guided isolation utilizing ER competitive binding as a monitor and screening using ultrafiltration LC-MS revealed that genistein was the most active component of red clover [29].
  • Interestingly, the transfer of the R. meliloti nodFE, nodG, and nodH genes to R. trifolii prevented R. trifolii from infecting and nodulating its normal host, white clover (Trifolium repens) [30].
  • Methanol extracts of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus L.), and hops (Humulus lupulus L.) showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta) [29].
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that 1-month supplementation with red clover isoflavones has a positive effect on HDL cholesterol, but at most a small effect on IGF status in premenopausal and no effect in postmenopausal subjects [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Trifolium


  1. A single amino acid mutation in the carnation ringspot virus capsid protein allows virion formation but prevents systemic infection. Sit, T.L., Haikal, P.R., Callaway, A.S., Lommel, S.A. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Rhizobium inoculation and physical wounding result in the rapid induction of the same chalcone synthase copy in Trifolium subterraneum. Lawson, C.G., Djordjevic, M.A., Weinman, J.J., Rolfe, B.G. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Mapping of the red clover necrotic mosaic virus subgenomic RNA. Zavriev, S.K., Hickey, C.M., Lommel, S.A. Virology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical studies of red clover (Trifolium pratense) dietary supplements in menopause: a literature review. Booth, N.L., Piersen, C.E., Banuvar, S., Geller, S.E., Shulman, L.P., Farnsworth, N.R. Menopause (New York, N.Y.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Oxygen deficiency affects carbohydrate reserves in overwintering forage crops. Bertrand, A., Castonguay, Y., Nadeau, P., Laberge, S., Michaud, R., Bélanger, G., Rochette, P. J. Exp. Bot. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Use of a mammalian cell culture benzo(a)pyrene metabolism assay for the detection of potential anticarcinogens from natural products: inhibition of metabolism by biochanin A, an isoflavone from Trifolium pratense L. Cassady, J.M., Zennie, T.M., Chae, Y.H., Ferin, M.A., Portuondo, N.E., Baird, W.M. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Host-range related structural features of the acidic extracellular polysaccharides of Rhizobium trifolii and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Philip-Hollingsworth, S., Hollingsworth, R.I., Dazzo, F.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning and characterization of red clover polyphenol oxidase cDNAs and expression of active protein in Escherichia coli and transgenic alfalfa. Sullivan, M.L., Hatfield, R.D., Thoma, S.L., Samac, D.A. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Estrogen bioactivity in fo-ti and other herbs used for their estrogen-like effects as determined by a recombinant cell bioassay. Oerter Klein, K., Janfaza, M., Wong, J.A., Chang, R.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutations in viral movement protein alter systemic infection and identify an intercellular barrier to entry into the phloem long-distance transport system. Wang, H.L., Wang, Y., Giesman-Cookmeyer, D., Lommel, S.A., Lucas, W.J. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Transgenic Trifolium repens with foliage accumulating the high sulphur protein, sunflower seed albumin. Christiansen, P., Gibson, J.M., Moore, A., Pedersen, C., Tabe, L., Larkin, P.J. Transgenic Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa or red clover silage as the sole forage. Broderick, G.A., Walgenbach, R.P., Sterrenburg, E. J. Dairy Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Herbicidal, plant growth inhibitory, and cytotoxic activities of bismuthines containing aromatic heterocycles. Céspedes, C.L., Lemus, A., Salazar, J.R., Cabrera, A., Sharma, P. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli and enzymatic characterisation of a cysteine protease from white clover (Trifolium repens). Asp, T., Bowra, S., Borg, S., Holm, P.B. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Nucleotide sequence of additional members of the gene family encoding chalcone synthase in Trifolium subterraneum. Howles, P.A., Arioli, T., Weinman, J.J. Plant Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase multigene family in Trifolium subterraneum. Howles, P.A., Arioli, T., Weinman, J.J. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. A double-blind randomized study on the effects of red clover isoflavones on the endometrium. Hale, G.E., Hughes, C.L., Robboy, S.J., Agarwal, S.K., Bievre, M. Menopause (New York, N.Y.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Red clover necrotic mosaic virus infectious transcripts synthesized in vitro. Xiong, Z.G., Lommel, S.A. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization and symbiotic function of a region on the Rhizobium leguminosarum Sym plasmid pRL1JI responsible for a secreted, flavonoid-inducible 50-kilodalton protein. de Maagd, R.A., Spaink, H.P., Pees, E., Mulders, I.H., Wijfjes, A., Wijffelman, C.A., Okker, R.J., Lugtenberg, B.J. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of red clover isoflavones on cox-2 activity in murine and human monocyte/macrophage cells. Lam, A.N., Demasi, M., James, M.J., Husband, A.J., Walker, C. Nutrition and cancer. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The in vivo effect of red clover diet on ventral prostate growth in adult male mice. Risbridger, G.P., Wang, H., Frydenberg, M., Husband, A. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibitory effects of the herbicide trifluralin on the establishment of the clover root nodule symbiosis. De Rosa, F., Haber, D., Williams, C., Margulis, L. Cytobios (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Isoflavones from red clover improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal women. Nestel, P.J., Pomeroy, S., Kay, S., Komesaroff, P., Behrsing, J., Cameron, J.D., West, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover. Hunter, D.A., Yoo, S.D., Butcher, S.M., McManus, M.T. Plant Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Purification and properties of an alpha-D-galactoside galactohydrolase from the seeds of Trifolium repens (white clover). Williams, J., Villarroya, H., Petek, F. Biochem. J. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Absorption in humans of isoflavones from soy and red clover is similar. Tsunoda, N., Pomeroy, S., Nestel, P. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Phytoestrogen content and estrogenic effect of legume fodder. Saloniemi, H., Wähälä, K., Nykänen-Kurki, P., Kallela, K., Saastamoinen, I. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparison of hormonal activity (estrogen, androgen and progestin) of standardized plant extracts for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. Beck, V., Unterrieder, E., Krenn, L., Kubelka, W., Jungbauer, A. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. Liu, J., Burdette, J.E., Xu, H., Gu, C., van Breemen, R.B., Bhat, K.P., Booth, N., Constantinou, A.I., Pezzuto, J.M., Fong, H.H., Farnsworth, N.R., Bolton, J.L. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Interference between Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium trifolii nodulation genes: genetic basis of R. meliloti dominance. Debellé, F., Maillet, F., Vasse, J., Rosenberg, C., de Billy, F., Truchet, G., Dénarié, J., Ausubel, F.M. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: a pilot study. Campbell, M.J., Woodside, J.V., Honour, J.W., Morton, M.S., Leathem, A.J. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Radioimmunoassay determination of formononetin in murine plasma and mammary glandular tissue. Wang, W. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Floral procyanidins of the forage legume red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Sivakumaran, S., Meagher, L.P., Foo, L.Y., Lane, G.A., Fraser, K., Rumball, W. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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