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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Greenhouse Effect

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Disease relevance of Greenhouse Effect

  • The framework Ela 1.0 considers the environmental categories: global warming, ozone depletion, resource and energy consumption, wastes, eutrophication (including COD and BOD as measured parameters), acidification, ecotoxicity, ozone formation and human toxicity [1].

High impact information on Greenhouse Effect

  • This discrepancy suggests that the upward trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation index (corresponding to strengthened westerlies in the North Atlantic region), as simulated in a number of global warming scenarios, may be too small, leading to an underestimation of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on European climate [2].
  • The magnitude of the direct radiative forcing from black carbon itself exceeds that due to CH4, suggesting that black carbon may be the second most important component of global warming after CO2 in terms of direct forcing [3].
  • Model calculations show that the surface of early Mars could have been warmed through a scattering variant of the greenhouse effect, resulting from the ability of the carbon dioxide ice clouds to reflect the outgoing thermal radiation back to the surface [4].
  • Evidence is presented here in support of the hypothesis that heightened hydrothermal activity induced by the Eocene tectonic activity caused a global greenhouse effect, which may represent the long-sought-after historical analog to the carbon dioxide-induced global warming expected to occur by the middle of the next century [5].
  • Nitrous oxide (N20) is a greenhouse gas, the third most significant contributor to global warming [6].

Biological context of Greenhouse Effect

  • The gas carbon dioxide (CO2) plays a critical role in microbial and mammalian respiration, photosynthesis in algae and plants, chemoreception in insects, and even global warming . However, how CO2 is transported, sensed, and metabolized by microorganisms is largely not understood [7].
  • The HFC-134a life cycle yields no impact on ozone depletion and a significantly decreased global warming impact compared with its predecessor, HCFC-22, and a tradeoff of slightly higher global warming impact and fewer added safety concerns compared with its more flammable counterpart, cyclopentane [8].

Associations of Greenhouse Effect with chemical compounds

  • Rechargeable lithium batteries represent one of the most important developments in energy storage for 100 years, with the potential to address the key problem of global warming [9].
  • Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs), especially dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanethiol (MT), is intensively studied because these compounds play an important role in the processes of global warming, acid precipitation, and the global sulfur cycle [10].
  • Global warming and increased ultraviolet radiation may affect the global budget of methylmercury, including its formation and degradation in both biotic and abiotic environments [11].
  • The tropospheric lifetimes of the hydrofluoroethers are estimated to be short tauOH((CF3)2CHOCH3) approximately 100 days, tauOH(CF3CH2OCH2CF3) approximately 80 days, tauOH(CF3CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 20 days, and tauOH(CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 14 days, and their global warming potentials are small compared to CFC-11 [12].
  • Estimates of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) relative to CFC-12 yield values of 0.02-0.14, resulting in a relative contribution to global warming of all volatile anaesthetics of approximately 0.03% [13].

Gene context of Greenhouse Effect

  • A one-dimensional, radiative-convective climate model was used to reexamine the question of whether early Mars could have been kept warm by the greenhouse effect of a dense, CO2 atmosphere [14].
  • As global warming intensified toward the end of the 20th century, there was a northward shift in winter ranges of bird species in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA [15].
  • Cautious extrapolation of our data to the ecosystem level suggests that decomposition rates in fens may increase and those in bogs may decrease under a global warming scenario [16].
  • We reviewed published results to estimate no-till effects on SOC and denitrification in the Argentine Pampas and the potential of no-till to mitigate the global warming effect [17].
  • Because carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is the main compound in the extracted off-gas (instead of methane (CH(4)), which dominated under anaerobic landfill conditions), the negative impact of diffuse LFG emissions towards an increased global warming effect may be significantly lowered [18].


  1. Ela 1.0--a framework for life-cycle impact assessment developed by the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. Part A: The conceptual framework. Herrchen, M., Keller, D., Lepper, P., Mangelsdorf, I., Wahnschaffe, U. Chemosphere (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Detection of human influence on sea-level pressure. Gillett, N.P., Zwiers, F.W., Weaver, A.J., Stott, P.A. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Jacobson, M.Z. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Warming early Mars with carbon dioxide clouds that scatter infrared radiation. Forget, F., Pierrehumbert, R.T. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Sea-floor hydrothermal activity links climate to tectonics: the Eocene carbon dioxide greenhouse. Owen, R.M., Rea, D.K. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel type of catalytic copper cluster in nitrous oxide reductase. Brown, K., Tegoni, M., Prudêncio, M., Pereira, A.S., Besson, S., Moura, J.J., Moura, I., Cambillau, C. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Carbonic anhydrase and CO2 sensing during Cryptococcus neoformans growth, differentiation, and virulence. Bahn, Y.S., Cox, G.M., Perfect, J.R., Heitman, J. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. A life-cycle comparison of several auxiliary blowing agents used for the manufacture of rigid polyurethane foam. Katz, S., Lindner, A.S. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Rechargeable LI2O2 electrode for lithium batteries. Ogasawara, T., Débart, A., Holzapfel, M., Novák, P., Bruce, P.G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds. Lomans, B.P., van der Drift, C., Pol, A., Op den Camp, H.J. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Mercury and monomethylmercury: present and future concerns. Fitzgerald, W.F., Clarkson, T.W. Environ. Health Perspect. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Study of the OH and Cl-initiated oxidation, IR absorption cross-section, radiative forcing, and global warming potential of four C4-hydrofluoroethers. Oyaro, N., Sellevåg, S.R., Nielsen, C.J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Volatile anaesthetics and the atmosphere: atmospheric lifetimes and atmospheric effects of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane. Langbein, T., Sonntag, H., Trapp, D., Hoffmann, A., Malms, W., Röth, E.P., Mörs, V., Zellner, R. British journal of anaesthesia. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. CO2 condensation and the climate of early Mars. Kasting, J.F. Icarus. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Shifts in winter distribution in birds: effects of global warming and local habitat change. Valiela, I., Bowen, J.L. Ambio. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Microcosm tests of the effects of temperature and microbial species number on the decomposition of Carex aquatilis and Sphagnum fuscum litter from southern boreal peatlands. Thormann, M.N., Bayley, S.E., Currah, R.S. Can. J. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in soil organic carbon contents and nitrous oxide emissions after introduction of no-till in Pampean agroecosystems. Steinbach, H.S., Alvarez, R. J. Environ. Qual. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Fundamental processes and implications during in situ aeration of old landfills. Ritzkowski, M., Heyer, K.U., Stegmann, R. Waste management (New York, N.Y.) (2006) [Pubmed]
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