The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

ACMC-20m2su     cyclobutatetraene

Synonyms: CTK3G7495, AC1O5DG7, 99417-54-6, 16107-EP2275401A1, 16107-EP2281563A1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Carbon

  • Uncontrolled studies in over 800 patients have confirmed that CO2 likely has a very low renal toxicity [1].
  • However, these studies also showed clearly that renal ischemia can occur due to a "vapor lock" phenomenon if the kidney is positioned vertically above the injection site, and recurrent injections are given without time for absorption of the arterially delivered CO2 boluses [1].
  • At the University of Florida, CO2 is the radiologic contrast agent of choice in patients with renal insufficiency, especially those with diabetes mellitus, and in those with pre-existing allergy to iodinated contrast agents [1].
  • BACKGROUND: Pneumoperitoneum with room temperature carbon dioxide (CO2) has been shown to decrease core temperature and urine output [2].
  • One death each occurred in moderate hemorrhage groups, both near the end of CO2 pneumoperitoneum [3].

Psychiatry related information on Carbon


High impact information on Carbon

  • It has generally been assumed that during photosynthesis, oxygen in CO2 reaches isotopic equilibrium with oxygen in 18O-enriched water in leaves [8].
  • We show, however, large differences in the activity of carbonic anhydrase (which catalyzes CO2 hydration and 18O exchange in leaves) among major plant groups that cause variations in the extent of 18O equilibrium (theta(eq)) [8].
  • After 3 years of CO2 fumigation, trees were twice as likely to be reproductively mature and produced three times as many cones and seeds as trees at ambient CO2 concentration [9].
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasing in atmospheric concentration since the Industrial Revolution. A decreasing number of stomata on leaves of land plants still provides the only morphological evidence that this man-made increase has already affected the biosphere [10].
  • The current rate of CO2 responsiveness in individual long-lived species cannot be accurately determined from field studies or by controlled-environment experiments [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Carbon


Biological context of Carbon

  • The gas carbon dioxide (CO2) plays a critical role in microbial and mammalian respiration, photosynthesis in algae and plants, chemoreception in insects, and even global warming . However, how CO2 is transported, sensed, and metabolized by microorganisms is largely not understood [16].
  • The CAN2 gene encoding beta-carbonic anhydrase in C. neoformans was found to be essential for growth in environmental ambient conditions but dispensable for in vivo proliferation and virulence at the high CO2 levels in the host [16].
  • OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that manipulations in patient instructions before inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) may blunt its anxiogenic effects [17].
  • On the other hand, deficiency in CYP21 expression is known to cause excessive production of adrenal C19 steroids, suggesting that CYP21 could play a role in adrenarche [18].
  • METHOD: NO concentrations measured by a chemiluminescence analyser (Dasibi Environmental Corporation) and carbon dioxide (CO2) measured by a Morgan capnograph were analysed in single exhalations from total lung capacity in healthy volunteers (mean age 35.9 years) [19].

Anatomical context of Carbon

  • Studies of the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers on dental enamel have demonstrated that surface changes can be produced at low fluences (< 10 J/cm2) if wavelengths are used which are efficiently absorbed by the hard tissues [20].
  • Very small vessels, equivalent to third-order branches of the renal artery, can be imaged satisfactorily with CO2 [1].
  • Experimental studies in dogs, whose renal arteries have been injected repeatedly with very large doses of CO2, demonstrate only transient changes in renal blood flow and no endothelial cell damage [1].
  • CONCLUSION: Ablation of the entire epidermis and papillary dermis with either pulsed or scanned CO2 lasers appears generally ineffective in treating recalcitrant psoriatic plaques, although the clearing seen in two patients suggests potentially successful future research directions [21].
  • Because the air in the esophagus has very low levels of CO2, the use of capnometers may help prevent unrecognized esophageal intubation in prehospital and emergency department settings [22].

Associations of Carbon with other chemical compounds

  • The can2 mutation restored early mating events in high CO2 but not later steps (fruiting body formation, sporulation), indicating a major role for carbonic anhydrase and CO2/HCO3- in this developmental cascade leading to the production of infectious spores [16].
  • The effects of short treatments (7 days) with paroxetine and with reboxetine on the reactivity to inhalations of 35% carbon dioxide (CO2)/65% oxygen (O2) were compared in 28 patients with Panic Disorder who had positive responses to 35% CO2 inhalations [23].
  • After 30 min of infusion, approximately 10% of the total 13C in brain extracts appeared in GABA, primarily (greater than 80%) at the amino carbon (C4), indicating that the GABA detected is labeled through pyruvate carboxylase [24].
  • BZ agonists (alprazolam, 0.01-1.0 mg/kg; lorazepam, 0.3-10.0 mg/kg; quazepam, 1.0-5.6 mg/kg) decreased VT and VE during both 5% CO2 and air inhalation [25].
  • RESULTS: A single inhalation of CO2 increased blood pressure, noradrenaline, salivary alpha amylase and psychosomatic symptoms, but decreased heart rate at both testing sessions [5].

Gene context of Carbon

  • Similar to the rat at P5, mice at P6 are unable to sustain an increase in CO2 induced respiratory frequency and GAD65 contributes to this fall off [26].
  • GAD65-/- animals at P6 showed a sustained increase in respiratory rate for the five mins exposure to CO2 [26].
  • Open-top chambers were used to expose young trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees to ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (56 Pa) atmospheric CO2 [27].
  • For instance, increasing the aliphatic character of the acyl side chain resulted in an increase in the upfield shift of the acyl bearing aromatic ring carbon, (C2), in the incorporated probe molecule as compared to the unincorporated probe molecule [28].
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breathing 5% CO2 on presyncopal tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carbon


  1. CO2 digital angiography: a safer contrast agent for renal vascular imaging? Hawkins, I.F., Wilcox, C.S., Kerns, S.R., Sabatelli, F.W. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of temperature of insufflated CO2 during and after prolonged laparoscopic surgery. Bäcklund, M., Kellokumpu, I., Scheinin, T., von Smitten, K., Tikkanen, I., Lindgren, L. Surgical endoscopy. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on hemodynamics in hemorrhaged animals. Ho, H.S., Saunders, C.J., Corso, F.A., Wolfe, B.M. Surgery (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Antipanic drug modulation of 35% CO2 hyperreactivity and short-term treatment outcome. Perna, G., Bertani, A., Caldirola, D., Gabriele, A., Cocchi, S., Bellodi, L. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The four-dimensional stress test: psychological, sympathetic-adrenal-medullary, parasympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses following inhalation of 35% CO2. Wetherell, M.A., Crown, A.L., Lightman, S.L., Miles, J.N., Kaye, J., Vedhara, K. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Hippocampal monoamine metabolism and the CO2 induced retrograde amnesia gradient in rats. Rigter, H., Van Eys, G., Leonard, B.E. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Time-dependent aspects of CO2 induced amnesia and hippocampal monoamine metabolism in rats. Van Eys, G., Rigter, H., Leonard, B.E. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Influence of carbonic anhydrase activity in terrestrial vegetation on the 18O content of atmospheric CO2. Gillon, J., Yakir, D. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Rising CO2 levels and the fecundity of forest trees. LaDeau, S.L., Clark, J.S. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. A natural experiment on plant acclimation: lifetime stomatal frequency response of an individual tree to annual atmospheric CO2 increase. Wagner, F., Below, R., Klerk, P.D., Dilcher, D.L., Joosten, H., Kürschner, W.M., Visscher, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Doxapram antagonism of meperidine-induced respiratory depression. Ramamurthy, S., Steen, S.N., Winnie, A.P. Anesth. Analg. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. The laser gingivectomy. The use of the CO2 laser for the removal of phenytoin hyperplasia. Pick, R.M., Pecaro, B.C., Silberman, C.J. J. Periodontol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Metabolism of dodecyldimethylamine by Pseudomonas MA3. Kroon, A.G., Pomper, M.A., van Ginkel, C.G. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Excess tissue friability during CO2 laser vaporization of nodular amyloidosis. Hamzavi, I., Lui, H. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of O2 and CO2 on the dive behavior and heart rate of lesser scaup ducks (Aythya affinis): quantification of the critical PaO2 that initiates a diving bradycardia. Borg, K.A., Milsom, W.K., Jones, D.R. Respiratory physiology & neurobiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Carbonic anhydrase and CO2 sensing during Cryptococcus neoformans growth, differentiation, and virulence. Bahn, Y.S., Cox, G.M., Perfect, J.R., Heitman, J. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Instructional set and physiological response to CO2 inhalation. Welkowitz, L.A., Papp, L., Martinez, J., Browne, S., Gorman, J.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Adrenarche results from development of a 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-deficient adrenal reticularis. Gell, J.S., Carr, B.R., Sasano, H., Atkins, B., Margraf, L., Mason, J.I., Rainey, W.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of measurement conditions on measured levels of peak exhaled nitric oxide. Byrnes, C.A., Dinarevic, S., Busst, C.A., Shinebourne, E.A., Bush, A. Thorax (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Scanning electron microscope observations of CO2 laser effects on dental enamel. McCormack, S.M., Fried, D., Featherstone, J.D., Glena, R.E., Seka, W. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. CO2 laser resurfacing of psoriatic plaques: a pilot study. Alora, M.B., Anderson, R.R., Quinn, T.R., Taylor, C.R. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Capnometry in emergency medicine. Sanders, A.B. Annals of emergency medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Modulation of hyperreactivity to 35% CO2 after one week of treatment with paroxetine and reboxetine: a double-blind, randomized study. Perna, G., Bertani, A., Caldirola, D., Di Pasquale, D., Migliarese, G., Bellodi, L. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for gamma-aminobutyric acid formation via pyruvate carboxylase in rat brain: a metabolic basis for compartmentation. Brainard, J.R., Kyner, E., Rosenberg, G.A. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Respiratory effects of benzodiazepine-related drugs in awake rhesus monkeys. Wettstein, J.G., Teeple, E.S., Morse, W.H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Hypercapnic ventilatory response in mice lacking the 65 kDa isoform of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD65). Bissonnette, J.M., Knopp, S.J. Respir. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Fine root chemistry and decomposition in model communities of north-temperate tree species show little response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying soil resource availability. King, J.S., Pregitzer, K.S., Zak, D.R., Holmes, W.E., Schmidt, K. Oecologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. The use of 13C solid state NMR to elucidate physico-chemical association in Eudragit RS100 microencapsulated acyl esters of salicylic acid. Vachon, M.G., Nairn, J.G. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. The effects of breathing 5% CO2 on human cardiovascular responses and tolerance to orthostatic stress. Howden, R., Lightfoot, J.T., Brown, S.J., Swaine, I.L. Exp. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparison of immunologic and physiologic effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum at room and body temperatures. Puttick, M.I., Scott-Coombes, D.M., Dye, J., Nduka, C.C., Menzies-Gow, N.M., Mansfield, A.O., Darzi, A. Surgical endoscopy. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities