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Chemical Compound Review

LithoTab     lithium(+1) cation

Synonyms: Normothymin-E, Lithium(+), lithium ion, Lithium(1+), Lithium atom, ...
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Disease relevance of LITHIUM

  • Amelioration of polyuria by amiloride in patients receiving long-term lithium therapy [1].
  • Red-cell lithium-sodium countertransport is increased in patients with essential hypertension [2].
  • Lithium carbonate in chemotherapy-induced neutropenia [3].
  • Six of 47 patients (13 percent) assigned to receive lithium doses that would produce serum levels in the standard range had relapses while on protocol, as compared with 18 of 47 (38 percent) assigned to the low-dose range [4].
  • The use of lithium carbonate to reduce infection and leukopenia during systemic chemotherapy [5].
  • Of interest in relation to the side effect of hypothyroidism, which is caused by long-term lithium treatment was the fact that we observed changes in mRNA expression in five genes related to thyroxine metabolism [6].

Psychiatry related information on LITHIUM


High impact information on LITHIUM

  • AKT-GSK3beta signaling is a target of lithium and as such has been implicated in the pathogenesis of mood disorders [16].
  • Seventeen of the 52 patients with IDDM (33 percent) had sodium-lithium countertransport activity that exceeded the maximal activity in the control subjects (0.39 mmol of lithium per hour per liter of cells) [17].
  • Red-cell lithium-sodium countertransport and renal lithium clearance in hypertension [2].
  • Thus, amiloride may provide a specific therapy for polyuria in lithium-treated patients while obviating the need for potassium supplementation in the treatment of this kind of polyuria [1].
  • We studied the effect of amiloride on lithium-induced polyuria in nine such patients receiving maintenance lithium therapy who had a vasopressin-resistant defect in urinary concentrating ability [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of LITHIUM


Biological context of LITHIUM


Anatomical context of LITHIUM


Associations of LITHIUM with other chemical compounds

  • The data suggest a role for lithium in the modulation of cyclic AMP-dependent events in lymphocytes [30].
  • In normal muscle, lithium reduces the number of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions [31].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of continuation pharmacotherapy with nortriptyline hydrochloride or combination nortriptyline and lithium carbonate in preventing post-ECT relapse [32].
  • The effect of ouabain and lithium on acidification in cortical and medullary collecting tubules derived from starved New Zealand white rabbits was studied by using the techniques of isolated nephron microperfusion and microcalorimetric determination of total CO2 flux [33].
  • NT peptide and NT/N mRNA levels are synergistically induced by combinations of NGF, dexamethasone, activators of adenylate cyclase, and lithium ion [34].
  • A subset of strains were treated for 4 weeks with lithium carbonate before the d-amphetamine challenge, and in each of these strains, lithium produced effects identical to those seen following acute administration [35].
  • When hexane was used as solvent, strong lithium-complexing ligands such as [12]crown-4 and N,N'-dimethylpropylideneurea (DMPU) inhibited the reaction whereas more (hemi)labile ligands (TMEDA>THF approximately DME) favored it [36].

Gene context of LITHIUM


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LITHIUM

  • Lithium carbonate during chemotherapy [42].
  • Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics [43].
  • Lithium accumulation by snail neurones measured by a new Li+-sensitive microelectrode [44].
  • Lithium increased the plasma renin activity equally in both the lead treated and the control groups [45].
  • Animals receiving low-intensity electrical stimulation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala while drinking plain tap water were injected with toxic doses of lithium chloride to examine whether brain stimulation can serve as a conditioned stimulus in a bait-shyness paradigm [25].


  1. Amelioration of polyuria by amiloride in patients receiving long-term lithium therapy. Batlle, D.C., von Riotte, A.B., Gaviria, M., Grupp, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Red-cell lithium-sodium countertransport and renal lithium clearance in hypertension. Weder, A.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Lithium carbonate in chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Meisler, A.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparison of standard and low serum levels of lithium for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Gelenberg, A.J., Kane, J.M., Keller, M.B., Lavori, P., Rosenbaum, J.F., Cole, K., Lavelle, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. The use of lithium carbonate to reduce infection and leukopenia during systemic chemotherapy. Lyman, G.H., Williams, C.C., Preston, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. A microarray gene expression study of the molecular pharmacology of lithium carbonate on mouse brain mRNA to understand the neurobiology of mood stabilization and treatment of bipolar affective disorder. McQuillin, A., Rizig, M., Gurling, H.M. Pharmacogenet. Genomics (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Serum lithium during treatment of bipolar disorder. Swartz, C.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Lithium in the treatment of mood disorders. Stern, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Lithium differentially antagonises self-stimulation facilitated by morphine and (+)-amphetamine. Liebman, J.M., Segal, D.S. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Medical therapies for mood disorders alter the blood-brain barrier. Preskorn, S.H., Irwin, G.H., Simpson, S., Friesen, D., Rinne, J., Jerkovich, G. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Lithium treatment of depressed and nondepressed alcoholics. Dorus, W., Ostrow, D.G., Anton, R., Cushman, P., Collins, J.F., Schaefer, M., Charles, H.L., Desai, P., Hayashida, M., Malkerneker, U. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Response to lithium augmentation in depression is associated with the glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta -50T/C single nucleotide polymorphism. Adli, M., Hollinde, D.L., Stamm, T., Wiethoff, K., Tsahuridu, M., Kirchheiner, J., Heinz, A., Bauer, M. Biol. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Lithium and risk for Alzheimer's disease in elderly patients with bipolar disorder. Nunes, P.V., Forlenza, O.V., Gattaz, W.F. Br. J. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Lack of lithium-like behavioral and molecular effects in IMPA2 knockout mice. Cryns, K., Shamir, A., Shapiro, J., Daneels, G., Goris, I., Van Craenendonck, H., Straetemans, R., Belmaker, R.H., Agam, G., Moechars, D., Steckler, T. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Lithium reduces tau phosphorylation but not A beta or working memory deficits in a transgenic model with both plaques and tangles. Caccamo, A., Oddo, S., Tran, L.X., LaFerla, F.M. Am. J. Pathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Convergent evidence for impaired AKT1-GSK3beta signaling in schizophrenia. Emamian, E.S., Hall, D., Birnbaum, M.J., Karayiorgou, M., Gogos, J.A. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Increase in glomerular filtration rate in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and elevated erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport. Carr, S., Mbanya, J.C., Thomas, T., Keavey, P., Taylor, R., Alberti, K.G., Wilkinson, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. A common mechanism of action for three mood-stabilizing drugs. Williams, R.S., Cheng, L., Mudge, A.W., Harwood, A.J. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Lithium carbonate hypothyroidism, and serum creatine phosphokinase level. Nair, V., Hariprasad, M.K., Weiss, A. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Lithium inhibition of bone mineralization and osteoid formation. Baran, D.T., Schwartz, M.P., Bergfeld, M.A., Teitelbaum, S.L., Slatopolsky, E., Avioli, L.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. The Northwick Park "functional" psychosis study: diagnosis and treatment response. Johnstone, E.C., Crow, T.J., Frith, C.D., Owens, D.G. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of lithium on murine hematopoiesis in a liquid culture system. Levitt, L.J., Quesenberry, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Lithium increases platelet count. Joffe, R.T., Kellner, C.H., Post, R.M., Uhde, T.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation. Hoeflich, K.P., Luo, J., Rubie, E.A., Tsao, M.S., Jin, O., Woodgett, J.R. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Electrical stimulation of the amygdala as a conditioned stimulus in a bait-shyness paradigm. Phillips, A.G., LePiane, F.G. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Adenovirus terminal protein mediates both nuclear matrix association and efficient transcription of adenovirus DNA. Schaack, J., Ho, W.Y., Freimuth, P., Shenk, T. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Choline accumulates in erythrocytes during lithium therapy. Jope, R.S., Jenden, D.J., Ehrlich, B.E., Diamond, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of lithium on neutrophil mass and production. Rothstein, G., Clarkson, D.R., Larsen, W., Grosser, B.I., Athens, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Reversible sinus-node abnormalities due to lithium carbonate therapy. Wilson, J.R., Kraus, E.S., Bailas, M.M., Rakita, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Lithium: a modulator of cyclic AMP-dependent events in lymphocytes? Gelfand, E.W., Dosch, H.M., Hastings, B., Shore, A. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Lithium reduces the number of acetylcholine receptors in skeletal muscle. Pestronk, A., Drachman, D.B. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  32. Continuation pharmacotherapy in the prevention of relapse following electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Sackeim, H.A., Haskett, R.F., Mulsant, B.H., Thase, M.E., Mann, J.J., Pettinati, H.M., Greenberg, R.M., Crowe, R.R., Cooper, T.B., Prudic, J. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Characterization of acidification in the cortical and medullary collecting tubule of the rabbit. Laski, M.E., Kurtzman, N.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Mutually dependent response elements in the cis-regulatory region of the neurotensin/neuromedin N gene integrate environmental stimuli in PC12 cells. Kislauskis, E., Dobner, P.R. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Strain differences in lithium attenuation of d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion: a mouse model for the genetics of clinical response to lithium. Gould, T.D., O'Donnell, K.C., Picchini, A.M., Manji, H.K. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  36. Ligand-activated lithium-mediated zincation of N-phenylpyrrole. Seggio, A., Lannou, M.I., Chevallier, F., Nobuto, D., Uchiyama, M., Golhen, S., Roisnel, T., Mongin, F. Chemistry (2007) [Pubmed]
  37. GSK-3alpha regulates production of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides. Phiel, C.J., Wilson, C.A., Lee, V.M., Klein, P.S. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Lithium toxicity in yeast is due to the inhibition of RNA processing enzymes. Dichtl, B., Stevens, A., Tollervey, D. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. A cell-free assay system for beta-catenin signaling that recapitulates direct inductive events in the early xenopus laevis embryo. Nelson, R.W., Gumbiner, B.M. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Identification and characterization of a highly conserved calcineurin binding protein, CBP1/calcipressin, in Cryptococcus neoformans. Görlach, J., Fox, D.S., Cutler, N.S., Cox, G.M., Perfect, J.R., Heitman, J. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Insulin-like growth factor 1 regulates the location, stability, and transcriptional activity of beta-catenin. Playford, M.P., Bicknell, D., Bodmer, W.F., Macaulay, V.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. Lithium carbonate during chemotherapy. Coleman, D.L., Horwitz, R.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  43. Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Poizot, P., Laruelle, S., Grugeon, S., Dupont, L., Tarascon, J.M. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  44. Lithium accumulation by snail neurones measured by a new Li+-sensitive microelectrode. Thomas, R.C., Simon, W., Oehme, M. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  45. Lead exposure during infancy permanently increases lithium-induced polydipsia. Mailman, R.B., Krigman, M.R., Mueller, R.A., Mushak, P., Breese, G.R. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
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