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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Sex


Psychiatry related information on Sex

  • In pejerrey, the phenotypic sex is governed by the temperature during the critical period of sex determination (temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD) [2].
  • Morphological or functional (neurotransmitter) anomalies in androgen actions at the CNS level could also favor radical dissociation between psychological sex and gonadal, hormonal and phenotypic sex in transsexualism [3].

High impact information on Sex

  • On one side, duplications in Xp21, containing the DAX-1 gene, cause phenotypic sex reversal in XY individuals [4].
  • In contrast, the expression of Fig1a correlated with the phenotypic sex: Fig1a was expressed in male juvenile fish exposed to 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol and repressed in fish exposed to 17 alpha-methyltestosterone [5].
  • Sex reversed mice (Sxr) show a DNA arrangement of these sequences in conformity with their phenotypic sex, suggesting that this DNA is closely connected with the determination of sex [6].
  • The Y chromosome breakpoint was in the short arm but proximal to SRY, consistent with her phenotypic sex [7].
  • Pre-spawning adult fathead minnows, in which their phenotypic sex could be determined, were exposed in flow-through systems to three reference substances for 21 days, at 25 degrees C. Male and female fish, held in separate tanks, were exposed to dihydrotestosterone (DHT, androgen), flutamide (anti-androgen) and fadrozole (aromatase inhibitor) [8].

Biological context of Sex

  • This study finds no association between Y-chromosome loci hosting genes other than SRY, and the phenotypic sex, the diagnosis, and the phenotype of the patients [9].

Associations of Sex with chemical compounds

  • The present study reports testosterone (T) levels to which embryos are potentially exposed in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination [10].
  • These results suggest that sexual differentiation may begin in the brain prior to gonadal differentiation, supporting the idea that steroid hormone expression in the brain is a key determinant of phenotypic sex in fish [11].

Gene context of Sex


  1. The androgen receptor of the urogenital tract of the fetal rat is regulated by androgen. Bentvelsen, F.M., McPhaul, M.J., Wilson, J.D., George, F.W. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunocytochemical identification of GtH1 and GtH2 cells during the temperature-sensitive period for sex determination in pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis. Miranda, L.A., Strüssmann, C.A., Somoza, G.M. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Hormones and psychosexual differentiation. Giordano, G., Giusti, M. Minerva Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. DAX-1, an unusual orphan receptor at the crossroads of steroidogenic function and sexual differentiation. Lalli, E., Sassone-Corsi, P. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Hormonal induction and stability of monosex populations in the medaka (Oryzias latipes): expression of sex-specific marker genes. Scholz, S., Rösler, S., Schäffer, M., Hornung, U., Schartl, M., Gutzeit, H.O. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Conserved repeated DNA sequences in vertebrate sex chromosomes. Jones, K.W., Singh, L. Hum. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Léri-Weill syndrome associated with a pseudodicentric X;Y translocation chromosome and skewed X-inactivation: implications for genetic counselling. Baralle, D., Willatt, L.R., Shears, D.J. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Successful detection of (anti-)androgenic and aromatase inhibitors in pre-spawning adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) using easily measured endpoints of sexual development. Panter, G.H., Hutchinson, T.H., Hurd, K.S., Sherren, A., Stanley, R.D., Tyler, C.R. Aquat. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of high frequency of Y chromosome deletions in patients with sex chromosome mosaicism and correlation with the clinical phenotype and Y-chromosome instability. Patsalis, P.C., Skordis, N., Sismani, C., Kousoulidou, L., Koumbaris, G., Eftychi, C., Stavrides, G., Ioulianos, A., Kitsiou-Tzeli, S., Galla-Voumvouraki, A., Kosmaidou, Z., Hadjiathanasiou, C.G., McElreavey, K. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Maternal plasma and egg yolk testosterone concentrations during embryonic development in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Lovern, M.B., Wade, J. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Real-time PCR analysis of ovary- and brain-type aromatase gene expression during Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) development. Matsuoka, M.P., van Nes, S., Andersen, O., Benfey, T.J., Reith, M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. A single genetic determinant that prevents sex reversal in C57BL-YPOS congenic mice. Whitney, J.B., Mills, T.M., Lewis, R.W., Wartell, R., Abney, T.O. Biochem. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
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