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MeSH Review

Critical Period (Psychology)

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Disease relevance of Critical Period (Psychology)


Psychiatry related information on Critical Period (Psychology)


High impact information on Critical Period (Psychology)

  • BDNF regulates the maturation of inhibition and the critical period of plasticity in mouse visual cortex [9].
  • In mice of all ages lacking an isoform of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) synthetic enzyme (GAD65), as well as in immature wild-type animals before the onset of their natural critical period, benzodiazepines selectively reduced a prolonged discharge phenotype to unmask plasticity [10].
  • In wg- embryos and in conditional mutants in which wg function is inactivated during a critical period between three and five hours after egg laying, early en expression begins normally but then disappears within several hours [11].
  • We report here that the selective disruption of postsynaptic activation in rat S1 by application of a glutamate receptor antagonist inhibits rearrangements in the somatotopic patterning of thalamocortical afferents induced by manipulations of the sensory periphery during the critical period [12].
  • Here we report that during the critical period in young kittens, a selective NMDA-receptor antagonist blocks visual responses of cortical neurons much more effectively than it does in the adult cat [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Critical Period (Psychology)


Biological context of Critical Period (Psychology)


Anatomical context of Critical Period (Psychology)

  • The developmental profile of COX-2 expression in dendrites follows well known histogenetic gradients and coincides with the critical period for activity-dependent synaptic remodeling [24].
  • We describe here a novel reporter mouse line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of an Sf1 promoter fragment, marking Sertoli and granulosa cell precursors during the critical period of sex determination [25].
  • A critical period for nicotine-induced disruption of synaptic development in rat auditory cortex [26].
  • These data indicate that a simple delay in thyroid hormone supply during a critical period of development can lead to low beta-tectorin levels in the tectorial membrane and suggest for the first time that beta-tectorin may be required for development of normal hearing [27].
  • We suggest that these observations of a critical period until E16 (EDL) or E17 (soleus) during which innervation is an absolute prerequisite for secondary myotube formation reflect the presence of a nerve-dependent population of myoblasts which must be activated before secondary myotube formation can commence [28].

Gene context of Critical Period (Psychology)

  • Targeted disruption of tPA release or its upstream regulation by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) prevented MD-induced spine loss that was pharmacologically rescued concomitant with critical period plasticity [29].
  • NT-4/5 was only effective at the onset, but no longer at the peak of the critical period suggesting a switch in neurotrophin dependency for these cortical cell classes [30].
  • Targeted expression of shibire ts and semaphorin 1a reveals critical periods for synapse formation in the giant fiber of Drosophila [31].
  • Our prior work on Reelin and APOE delineated a gene-environment interactive model of autism pathogenesis, whereby genetically vulnerable individuals prenatally exposed to OPs during critical periods in neurodevelopment could undergo altered neuronal migration, resulting in an autistic syndrome [32].
  • To determine if the lack of EGF may be a decisive factor in the initiation and/or growth of collecting duct cysts, we administered exogenous EGF (1 microgram/g body wt subcutaneously) daily for Postnatal Days 3-9 (a critical period for collecting duct maturation) to C57BL/6J-cpk mice [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Critical Period (Psychology)


  1. Adult rat brain is sensitive to thyroid hormone. Regulation of RC3/neurogranin mRNA. Iñiguez, M.A., Rodriguez-Peña, A., Ibarrola, N., Morreale de Escobar, G., Bernal, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Electrocardiographic precordial mapping in anterior myocardial infarction. The critical period for interventions as exemplified by methylprednisolone. Selwyn, A.P., Fox, K.M., Welman, E., Jonathan, A., Shillingford, J.P. Circulation (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Androgen-specific critical periods for the organization of the major pelvic ganglion. Melvin, J.E., Hamill, R.W. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Transfer of the active form of transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene to newborn rat lung induces changes consistent with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Gauldie, J., Galt, T., Bonniaud, P., Robbins, C., Kelly, M., Warburton, D. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of tolerance in murine autoimmune diabetes by transient blockade of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 pathway. Moriyama, H., Yokono, K., Amano, K., Nagata, M., Hasegawa, Y., Okamoto, N., Tsukamoto, K., Miki, M., Yoneda, R., Yagi, N., Tominaga, Y., Kikutani, H., Hioki, K., Okumura, K., Yagita, H., Kasuga, M. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Rapid down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the olfactory bulb of naris-occluded adult rats. Cho, J.Y., Min, N., Franzen, L., Baker, H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Different dopamine D1 and D2 receptors expression after motor activity in the striatal critical period. Soiza-Reilly, M., Fossati, M., Ibarra, G.R., Azcurra, J.M. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Adolescence: macronutrient needs. Giovannini, M., Agostoni, C., Gianní, M., Bernardo, L., Riva, E. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. BDNF regulates the maturation of inhibition and the critical period of plasticity in mouse visual cortex. Huang, Z.J., Kirkwood, A., Pizzorusso, T., Porciatti, V., Morales, B., Bear, M.F., Maffei, L., Tonegawa, S. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibitory threshold for critical-period activation in primary visual cortex. Fagiolini, M., Hensch, T.K. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Intercellular signalling in Drosophila segment formation reconstructed in vitro. Cumberledge, S., Krasnow, M.A. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Postsynaptic control of plasticity in developing somatosensory cortex. Schlaggar, B.L., Fox, K., O'Leary, D.D. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. NMDA receptors in the visual cortex of young kittens are more effective than those of adult cats. Tsumoto, T., Hagihara, K., Sato, H., Hata, Y. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Androgen receptors exist throughout the 'critical period' of brain sexual differentiation. Vito, C.C., Wieland, S.J., Fox, T.O. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Androgens prevent normally occurring cell death in a sexually dimorphic spinal nucleus. Nordeen, E.J., Nordeen, K.W., Sengelaub, D.R., Arnold, A.P. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. L-Ornithine decarboxylase:an essential role in early mammalian embryogenesis. Fozard, J.R., Part, M.L., Prakash, N.J., Grove, J., Schechter, P.J., Sjoerdsma, A., Koch-Weser, J. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase mediates ocular dominance shifts in cat visual cortex. Beaver, C.J., Ji, Q., Fischer, Q.S., Daw, N.W. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Optimization of somatic inhibition at critical period onset in mouse visual cortex. Katagiri, H., Fagiolini, M., Hensch, T.K. Neuron (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. NMDAR EPSC kinetics do not regulate the critical period for LTP at thalamocortical synapses. Barth, A.L., Malenka, R.C. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Hypomyelination and increased activity of voltage-gated K(+) channels in mice lacking protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon. Peretz, A., Gil-Henn, H., Sobko, A., Shinder, V., Attali, B., Elson, A. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Visual cortex is rescued from the effects of dark rearing by overexpression of BDNF. Gianfranceschi, L., Siciliano, R., Walls, J., Morales, B., Kirkwood, A., Huang, Z.J., Tonegawa, S., Maffei, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of Sry, the mouse sex determining gene. Hacker, A., Capel, B., Goodfellow, P., Lovell-Badge, R. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Ion channel blockers inhibit B cell activation at a precise stage of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Possible involvement of K+ channels. Amigorena, S., Choquet, D., Teillaud, J.L., Korn, H., Fridman, W.H. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. COX-2, a synaptically induced enzyme, is expressed by excitatory neurons at postsynaptic sites in rat cerebral cortex. Kaufmann, W.E., Worley, P.F., Pegg, J., Bremer, M., Isakson, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression profiling of purified mouse gonadal somatic cells during the critical time window of sex determination reveals novel candidate genes for human sexual dysgenesis syndromes. Beverdam, A., Koopman, P. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. A critical period for nicotine-induced disruption of synaptic development in rat auditory cortex. Aramakis, V.B., Hsieh, C.Y., Leslie, F.M., Metherate, R. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Thyroid hormone-deficient period prior to the onset of hearing is associated with reduced levels of beta-tectorin protein in the tectorial membrane: implication for hearing loss. Knipper, M., Richardson, G., Mack, A., Müller, M., Goodyear, R., Limberger, A., Rohbock, K., Köpschall, I., Zenner, H.P., Zimmermann, U. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Formation of myotubes in aneural rat muscles. Wilson, S.J., Harris, A.J. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Experience-dependent pruning of dendritic spines in visual cortex by tissue plasminogen activator. Mataga, N., Mizuguchi, Y., Hensch, T.K. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Differential effects of cortical neurotrophic factors on development of lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus neurons: anterograde and retrograde actions. Wahle, P., Di Cristo, G., Schwerdtfeger, G., Engelhardt, M., Berardi, N., Maffei, L. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Targeted expression of shibire ts and semaphorin 1a reveals critical periods for synapse formation in the giant fiber of Drosophila. Murphey, R.K., Froggett, S.J., Caruccio, P., Shan-Crofts, X., Kitamoto, T., Godenschwege, T.A. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Paraoxonase gene variants are associated with autism in North America, but not in Italy: possible regional specificity in gene-environment interactions. D'Amelio, M., Ricci, I., Sacco, R., Liu, X., D'Agruma, L., Muscarella, L.A., Guarnieri, V., Militerni, R., Bravaccio, C., Elia, M., Schneider, C., Melmed, R., Trillo, S., Pascucci, T., Puglisi-Allegra, S., Reichelt, K.L., Macciardi, F., Holden, J.J., Persico, A.M. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Epidermal growth factor ameliorates autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease in mice. Gattone, V.H., Lowden, D.A., Cowley, B.D. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger is critical to reperfusion damage and preconditioning in the isolated rat heart. Xiao, X.H., Allen, D.G. Cardiovasc. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Monocular deprivation decreases the expression of messenger RNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat visual cortex. Bozzi, Y., Pizzorusso, T., Cremisi, F., Rossi, F.M., Barsacchi, G., Maffei, L. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF) into kitten visual cortex increases immunoreactivity for NGF, NGF receptors, and choline acetyltransferase in basal forebrain without affecting ocular dominance plasticity or column development. Silver, M.A., Fagiolini, M., Gillespie, D.C., Howe, C.L., Frank, M.G., Issa, N.P., Antonini, A., Stryker, M.P. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Laminar distribution of NMDA receptor subunit (NR1, NR2A, NR2B) expression during the critical period in cat visual cortex. Mower, G.D., Chen, L. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Long-term learning deficits and changes in unlearned behaviors following in utero exposure to multiple daily doses of cocaine during different exposure periods and maternal plasma cocaine concentrations. Vorhees, C.V., Reed, T.M., Acuff-Smith, K.D., Schilling, M.A., Cappon, G.D., Fisher, J.E., Pu, C. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1995) [Pubmed]
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