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Gene Review

Ar  -  androgen receptor

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Andr, Androgen receptor, Dihydrotestosterone receptor, Nr3c4, Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4, ...
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Disease relevance of Ar


Psychiatry related information on Ar


High impact information on Ar


Chemical compound and disease context of Ar


Biological context of Ar


Anatomical context of Ar


Associations of Ar with chemical compounds

  • The regulation of SNR AR and ERbeta IR by testosterone may be important for the development of sex-specific functional systems involved in motor control [24].
  • Although DAI and BPA were very weak stimulators of uterine growth, these substances were able to alter the expression of AR, ER and C3 very strongly [25].
  • In the YTS, RU486 activated gene transcription in the yeast containing the ER, AR, or PR [26].
  • Cotreatment with the ER antagonist tamoxifen completely blocked the effects of 3beta-diol and partially blocked the effect of DHT, whereas the AR antagonist flutamide had no effect [27].
  • In the present study, efferent ductule ligation and castration, followed by replacement with testosterone, dihydro-testosterone (DHT) or estradiol was used to investigate the relative importance of circulating and luminal sources of steroid for the modulation of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR in rat efferent ductules [21].

Physical interactions of Ar


Regulatory relationships of Ar


Other interactions of Ar

  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that Esr1, Esr2, and Ar mRNAs were all expressed in the gubernaculum [37].
  • In the YTS, TEST activated gene transcription in the yeast containing the AR or PR [26].
  • Our results suggest crosstalk between the Neu proto-oncogene and AR signaling pathways in the growth of both the normal and cancerous mammary epithelium [38].
  • In summary these data provide a comprehensive view of the earliest events in AR-mediated prostate cell proliferation in vivo, and suggest that nuclear exclusion of p53 is a critical step in prostate growth [3].
  • GnRHa and flutamide caused no detectable change in AR immunoexpression in target tissues, with the exception of minor changes in the testes of flutamide-treated males [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ar


  1. Mechanism responsible for the salutary effects of flutamide on cardiac performance after trauma-hemorrhagic shock: Upregulation of cardiomyocyte estrogen receptors. Yu, H.P., Yang, S., Choudhry, M.A., Hsieh, Y.C., Bland, K.I., Chaudry, I.H. Surgery (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Androgen receptor and calcitonin gene-related peptide in neurons of the genitofemoral nerve during testicular descent induced with human chorionic gonadotropin. Vigueras, R.M., Moreno-Mendoza, N., Reyes, G., Merchant-Larios, H. Arch. Med. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of genetic pathways activated by the androgen receptor during the induction of proliferation in the ventral prostate gland. Nantermet, P.V., Xu, J., Yu, Y., Hodor, P., Holder, D., Adamski, S., Gentile, M.A., Kimmel, D.B., Harada, S., Gerhold, D., Freedman, L.P., Ray, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibitory effects of estrogenic compounds, 4-nonylphenol and genistein, on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced ovarian carcinogenesis in rats. Tanaka, T., Kohno, H., Tanino, M., Yanaida, Y. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Synergistic effects of estrogen and androgen on the prostate: effects of estrogen on androgen- and estrogen-receptors, BrdU uptake, immunohistochemical study of AR, and responses to antiandrogens. Suzuki, K., Ito, K., Suzuki, T., Honma, S., Yamanaka, H. Prostate (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibition of cell nuclear androgen receptor binding and copulation in male rats by an antiandrogen, Sch 16423. McGinnis, M.Y., Mirth, M.C. Neuroendocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Brain androgen-inducible aromatase is critical for adolescent organization of environment-specific social interaction in male rats. Kellogg, C.K., Lundin, A. Hormones and behavior. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Nonsteroidal compounds which bind epididymal androgen-binding protein but not the androgen receptor. Rousseau, G.G., Quivy, J.I., Kirchhoff, J., Bui, X.H., Devis, R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of beta-nerve growth factor receptor mRNA in Sertoli cells downregulated by testosterone. Persson, H., Ayer-Le Lievre, C., Söder, O., Villar, M.J., Metsis, M., Olson, L., Ritzen, M., Hökfelt, T. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Androgen control of cytosol progesterone receptor levels in the MT-W9B transplantable mammary tumor in the rat. Ip, M.M., Milholland, R.J., Kim, U., Rosen, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Steroid hormone receptors in the rat mammary adenocarcinoma induced by N-hydroxy-N-2-fluorenylacetamide. Li, S.A., Malejka-Giganti, D., Li, J.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. A x C rat prostate adenocarcinoma: initial characterization of testosterone regulation of hormone receptors of cultured cancer cells and derived tumors. Shain, S.A., Boesel, R.W., Kalter, S.S., Heberling, R.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. A single base mutation in the androgen receptor gene causes androgen insensitivity in the testicular feminized rat. Yarbrough, W.G., Quarmby, V.E., Simental, J.A., Joseph, D.R., Sar, M., Lubahn, D.B., Olsen, K.L., French, F.S., Wilson, E.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Androgen receptor pathway in rats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Nagao, S., Kusaka, M., Nishii, K., Marunouchi, T., Kurahashi, H., Takahashi, H., Grantham, J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Lack of feminization of the cremaster nucleus in cryptorchid androgen insensitive rats. Barthold, J.S., Mahler, H.R., Newton, B.W. J. Urol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Perinatal flutamide and mounting and lordosis behavior in adult female Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Brand, T., Slob, A.K. Behav. Brain Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Evaluation of a 15-day screening assay using intact male rats for identifying antiandrogens. O'Connor, J.C., Frame, S.R., Ladics, G.S. Toxicol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Involvement of androgen receptor in 17beta-estradiol-induced cell proliferation in rat uterus. Weihua, Z., Ekman, J., Almkvist, A., Saji, S., Wang, L., Warner, M., Gustafsson, J.A. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Sex differences in androgen and estrogen receptor expression in rat substantia nigra during development: an immunohistochemical study. Ravizza, T., Galanopoulou, A.S., Velísková, J., Moshé, S.L. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of the novel progestin gestodene by receptor binding studies and transactivation assays. Fuhrmann, U., Slater, E.P., Fritzemeier, K.H. Contraception. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential hormonal regulation of estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta and androgen receptor expression in rat efferent ductules. Oliveira, C.A., Mahecha, G.A., Carnes, K., Prins, G.S., Saunders, P.T., França, L.R., Hess, R.A. Reproduction (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Direct androgenic regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in motoneurons of rats with mosaic androgen insensitivity. Monks, D.A., Vanston, C.M., Watson, N.V. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Co-localization of androgen receptor with estrogen receptor beta in the lower urinary tract of the male rat. Salmi, S., Santti, R., Gustafsson, J.A., Mäkelä, S. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Testosterone regulates androgen and estrogen receptor immunoreactivity in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata. Ravizza, T., Velísková, J., Moshé, S.L. Neurosci. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Ability of xeno- and phytoestrogens to modulate expression of estrogen-sensitive genes in rat uterus: estrogenicity profiles and uterotropic activity. Diel, P., Schulz, T., Smolnikar, K., Strunck, E., Vollmer, G., Michna, H. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Evaluation of a Tier I screening battery for detecting endocrine-active compounds (EACs) using the positive controls testosterone, coumestrol, progesterone, and RU486. O'Connor, J.C., Davis, L.G., Frame, S.R., Cook, J.C. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. The androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and its metabolite 5alpha-androstan-3beta, 17beta-diol inhibit the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to stress by acting through estrogen receptor beta-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus. Lund, T.D., Hinds, L.R., Handa, R.J. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Somatostatin messenger RNA in hypothalamic neurons is increased by testosterone through activation of androgen receptors and not by aromatization to estradiol. Argente, J., Chowen-Breed, J.A., Steiner, R.A., Clifton, D.K. Neuroendocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Suppression of steroid receptor-chromatin interaction by inhibitors present in ammonium sulfate-fractionated rat testicular androgen receptor preparations. Tsai, Y.H. J. Androl. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Small nuclear RING finger protein stimulates the rat luteinizing hormone-beta promoter by interacting with Sp1 and steroidogenic factor-1 and protects from androgen suppression. Curtin, D., Ferris, H.A., Häkli, M., Gibson, M., Jänne, O.A., Palvimo, J.J., Shupnik, M.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential DNA binding by the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors involves the second Zn-finger and a C-terminal extension of the DNA-binding domains. Schoenmakers, E., Alen, P., Verrijdt, G., Peeters, B., Verhoeven, G., Rombauts, W., Claessens, F. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparative analysis of the influence of the high-mobility group box 1 protein on DNA binding and transcriptional activation by the androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone and mineralocorticoid receptors. Verrijdt, G., Haelens, A., Schoenmakers, E., Rombauts, W., Claessens, F. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Relationship between expression of sex steroid receptors and structure of the seminal vesicles after neonatal treatment of rats with potent or weak estrogens. Williams, K., Fisher, J.S., Turner, K.J., McKinnell, C., Saunders, P.T., Sharpe, R.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Correlation of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors in breast cancer. Ellis, L.M., Wittliff, J.L., Bryant, M.S., Hogancamp, W.E., Sitren, H.S., Bland, K.I. Am. J. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Regulation of androgen receptor expression at the onset of functional overload in rat plantaris muscle. Lee, W.J., Thompson, R.W., McClung, J.M., Carson, J.A. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Regulation of rat prostate stromal cell myodifferentiation by androgen and TGF-beta1. Gerdes, M.J., Larsen, M., Dang, T.D., Ressler, S.J., Tuxhorn, J.A., Rowley, D.R. Prostate (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of estrogen receptor ESR1 and its 46-kDa variant in the gubernaculum testis. Staub, C., Rauch, M., Ferrière, F., Trépos, M., Dorval-Coiffec, I., Saunders, P.T., Cobellis, G., Flouriot, G., Saligaut, C., Jégou, B. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Androgen-dependent mammary carcinogenesis in rats transgenic for the Neu proto-oncogene. Watson, P.A., Kim, K., Chen, K.S., Gould, M.N. Cancer Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Suppression of androgen action and the induction of gross abnormalities of the reproductive tract in male rats treated neonatally with diethylstilbestrol. McKinnell, C., Atanassova, N., Williams, K., Fisher, J.S., Walker, M., Turner, K.J., Saunders, T.K., Sharpe, R.M. J. Androl. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. Androgen receptor expression in the rat prostate is down-regulated by dietary phytoestrogens. Lund, T.D., Munson, D.J., Adlercreutz, H., Handa, R.J., Lephart, E.D. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. Effect of spironolactone and potassium canrenoate on cytosolic and nuclear androgen and estrogen receptors of rat liver. Francavilla, A., Di Leo, A., Eagon, P.K., Polimeno, L., Guglielmi, F., Fanizza, G., Barone, M., Starzl, T.E. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  42. Stromal and epithelial cells from rat ventral prostate during androgen deprivation and estrogen treatment--regulation of transcription. Bacher, M., Rausch, U., Goebel, H.W., Polzar, B., Mannherz, H.G., Aumüller, G. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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