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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The female reproductive cycle is an important variable in the response to trauma-hemorrhage.

Although immune functions in proestrus females are maintained after hemorrhage as opposed to decreased responses in males, it remains unknown whether such a sexual dimorphism also exists with regard to cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions under those conditions. To study this, male and female (estrus and proestrus) rats underwent a 5-cm midline laparotomy and were bled to and maintained at a mean blood pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of the maximal bleed-out volume was returned in the form of Ringer lactate (RL). Rats were then resuscitated with four times the shed blood volume with RL. At 24 h thereafter, cardiac index; heart performance; hepatocellular function; and plasma estradiol, testosterone, and prolactin levels were measured. Cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions were depressed in males and estrus females (P < 0.05) but were not depressed in proestrus females after resuscitation. Plasma estradiol and prolactin levels were highest in proestrus females (P < 0.05), whereas males had high testosterone and the lowest estradiol levels (P < 0.05). Thus the female reproductive cycle is an important variable in the response to hemorrhage. Because low testosterone and high estradiol and prolactin levels appear to be beneficial for organ functions after trauma-hemorrhage, antagonism of testosterone receptors and/or increases in estradiol and prolactin levels in males and estrus females, respectively, may be novel approaches for improving organ functions under such conditions.[1]


  1. The female reproductive cycle is an important variable in the response to trauma-hemorrhage. Jarrar, D., Wang, P., Cioffi, W.G., Bland, K.I., Chaudry, I.H. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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