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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Estrus


Psychiatry related information on Estrus


High impact information on Estrus

  • The infusion of a polyclonal antiserum to inhibin, from 12 noon on proestrus to 1 a.m. on the morning of estrus, as well as its acute intravenous injection during diestrus I or II, caused an increase in plasma FSH (but not luteinizing hormone) concentrations [11].
  • Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate has been identified in the vaginal secretions of female dogs in estrus [12].
  • These findings indicate that different mechanisms are involved in neonatal imprinting of hepatic steroid metabolism and in the well-known neonatal androgenic and estrogenic induction of persistent estrus and acyclic gonadotropin secreqion [13].
  • The possible source of the activation factors responsible for perforin gene induction in GMG cells was studied here with the pseudopregnancy model, in which cervical stimulation of mice during estrus leads to a series of hormonal changes resembling those seen in pregnancy, but in the absence of an embryo [14].
  • Pituitary pttg, bFGF, and VEGF are cyclically expressed during the rat estrus cycle, concordantly with estrogen levels [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Estrus


Biological context of Estrus


Anatomical context of Estrus

  • Fibroblasts of the estrus endometrial stroma were elongated cells with a fibrillar pattern of fibronectin on their surfaces [23].
  • Cell types present in the mammary gland and their evolution were studied by labeling female rats with radioactive thymidine at various phases of the estrus cycle [24].
  • Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that MIP-2 protein expression was prominent at the upper layer of the vaginal epithelium at metestrus-2, in contrast to a marginal staining in the vaginal epithelium at proestrus and estrus [25].
  • 6) The ovaries of TRDL-treated mice taken during persistent vaginal estrus contained a greater number of large hemorrhagic preovulatory follicles and fewer corpora lutea than those in ovaries taken at estrus from vehicle-injected control mice [26].
  • In Exp 1, endometrium from cyclic gilts (n = 7) on day 14 after estrus was perifused with either saline (control) or calcium ionophore A23187 added to luminal surface perifusion buffer [27].

Associations of Estrus with chemical compounds


Gene context of Estrus

  • Pituitary GnRH-R displayed a similar pattern of expression, except on estrus, when its mRNA levels declined [33].
  • Moreover, the sulfation level of SgII was significantly higher during estrus than during any other stage [34].
  • The oxytocin receptor (OTR) is expressed in the cow uterus at high levels at estrus and at term of pregnancy [35].
  • Expression of ActRI, ActRIIA, ActRIIB, and FS mRNA was measured on the afternoon of proestrus (1800 h) and the morning of estrus (0800 h) [36].
  • A weak signal was detected on estrus morning (E0200 h, E1000 h), but high levels of IGFBP-3 mRNA were observed in the stroma cells on Day 12 of pregnancy [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Estrus


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  2. Haploinsufficiency of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II in female reproduction. Takamoto, N., Kurihara, I., Lee, K., Demayo, F.J., Tsai, M.J., Tsai, S.Y. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of hypothalamic adrenergic receptors in preventing testosterone-induced androgenization in the female rat brain. Raum, W.J., Swerdloff, R.S. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Cysteamine depletes prolactin in young and old hyperprolactinemic rats. Simpkins, J.W., Estes, K.S., Millard, W.J., Sagar, S.M., Martin, J.B. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Lordosis of rats is modified by neurosteroidogenic effects of membrane benzodiazepine receptors in the ventral tegmental area. Frye, C.A., Petralia, S.M. Neuroendocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Concentrations of prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha in the utero-ovarian venous plasma of nonpregnant and early pregnant ewes. Silvia, W.J., Ottobre, J.S., Inskeep, E.K. Biol. Reprod. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Prostaglandins, clonidine and sexual receptivity in the guinea pig. Irving, S.M., Goy, R.W., Haning, R.V., Davis, G.A. Brain Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Positive feedback in hypogonadal female mice with preoptic area brain transplants. Gibson, M.J., Kokoris, G.J., Silverman, A.J. Neuroendocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Changes throughout estrous cycles of variables that might indicate estrus in dairy cows. Lewis, G.S., Newman, S.K. J. Dairy Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Thyroid function testing in Greyhounds. Gaughan, K.R., Bruyette, D.S. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibin-mediated feedback control of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in the female rat. Rivier, C., Rivier, J., Vale, W. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Sex pheromone in the dog. Goodwin, M., Gooding, K.M., Regnier, F. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Specificity of neonatal, androgen-induced imprinting of hepatic steroid metabolism in rats. Gustafsson, J., Stenberg, A. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Perforin-expressing granulated metrial gland cells in murine deciduoma. Zheng, L.M., Joag, S.V., Parr, M.B., Parr, E.L., Young, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Functional role of estrogen in pituitary tumor pathogenesis. Heaney, A.P., Fernando, M., Melmed, S. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Normal levels of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in neonatally induced, growth hormone-deficient adult male and female rats. Shapiro, B.H., Albucher, R.C., MacLeod, J.N., Bitar, M.S. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Uterine motility during the estrous cycle: studies in healthy bitches. Wheaton, L.G., Pijanowski, G.J., Weston, P.G., Burke, T.J. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons express Fos protein during the proestrous surge of luteinizing hormone. Lee, W.S., Smith, M.S., Hoffman, G.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Patterns of epithelial expression of Fos protein suggest important role in the transition from viable to cornified cell during keratinization. Fisher, C., Byers, M.R., Iadarola, M.J., Powers, E.A. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Sex hormone and IL-6 regulation of antigen presentation in the female reproductive tract mucosal tissues. Prabhala, R.H., Wira, C.R. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Rat ovarian angiotensin II receptors. Characterization and coupling to estrogen secretion. Pucell, A.G., Bumpus, F.M., Husain, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Modulation of Muc-1 mucin expression in the mouse uterus during the estrus cycle, early pregnancy and placentation. Braga, V.M., Gendler, S.J. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Fibronectin and cell shape in vivo: studies on the endometrium during pregnancy. Grinnell, F., Head, J.R., Hoffpauir, J. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Cell types and morphogenesis in the mammary gland. Dulbecco, R., Henahan, M., Armstrong, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Physiologic regulation of postovulatory neutrophil migration into vagina in mice by a C-X-C chemokine(s). Sonoda, Y., Mukaida, N., Wang, J.B., Shimada-Hiratsuka, M., Naito, M., Kasahara, T., Harada, A., Inoue, M., Matsushima, K. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. In vivo effects of follicle-stimulating hormone-related synthetic peptides on the mouse estrous cycle. Grasso, P., Reichert, L.E. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Reorientation of prostaglandin F secretion by calcium ionophore, estradiol, and prolactin in perifused porcine endometrium. Gross, T.S., Mirando, M.A., Young, K.H., Beers, S., Bazer, F.W., Thatcher, W.W. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Pituitary alpha subunit mRNA amounts during the sheep estrous cycle. Assessment by cDNA hybridizations. Landefeld, T.D., Kepa, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Enhancement of collagen-induced arthritis in female mice by estrogen receptor blockage. Jansson, L., Holmdahl, R. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Estrogen regulates the synthesis of epidermal growth factor in mouse uterine epithelial cells. Huet-Hudson, Y.M., Chakraborty, C., De, S.K., Suzuki, Y., Andrews, G.K., Dey, S.K. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Estrogen-serotonin interactions: implications for affective regulation. Rubinow, D.R., Schmidt, P.J., Roca, C.A. Biol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of estrus cycle, ovariectomy, and treatment with estrogen, tamoxifen, and progesterone on apolipoprotein(a) gene expression in transgenic mice. Zysow, B.R., Kauser, K., Lawn, R.M., Rubanyi, G.M. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression patterns in different tissues of the female rat across the estrous cycle. Schirman-Hildesheim, T.D., Bar, T., Ben-Aroya, N., Koch, Y. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle. Anouar, Y., Duval, J. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Transcriptional regulation of the bovine oxytocin receptor gene. Telgmann, R., Bathgate, R.A., Jaeger, S., Tillmann, G., Ivell, R. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Ovarian activin receptor subtype and follistatin gene expression in rats: reciprocal regulation by gonadotropins. Aloi, J.A., Marshall, J.C., Yasin, M., Gilrain, J.T., Haisenleder, D.J., Dalkin, A.C. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins show distinct patterns of expression in the rat uterus. Girvigian, M.R., Nakatani, A., Ling, N., Shimasaki, S., Erickson, G.F. Biol. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Influence of estradiol, stress, and 5-HT2A agonist treatment on brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in female rats. Cavus, I., Duman, R.S. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Sensory mechanisms involved in the induction of pseudopregnancy by progesterone: increased sensitivity to stimulation of the pudendal sensory field. Luque, E.H., Castro-Vazquez, A. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  40. Mullerian inhibiting substance in the adult rat ovary during various stages of the estrous cycle. Ueno, S., Kuroda, T., Maclaughlin, D.T., Ragin, R.C., Manganaro, T.F., Donahoe, P.K. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Involvement of hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the regulation of the estrous follicle-stimulating hormone surge in the female golden hamster. Coutifaris, C., Chappel, S.C. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  42. The antiprogestins RU486 and ZK98299 affect follicle-stimulating hormone secretion differentially on estrus, but not on proestrus. Ringstrom, S.J., Szabo, M., Kilen, S.M., Saberi, S., Knox, K.L., Schwartz, N.B. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
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