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Gene Review

Mid1  -  midline 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Midline-1, Fxy, Midline1, RING finger protein Midline-1, Trim18, ...
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Disease relevance of Mid1


Psychiatry related information on Mid1

  • Among the administrations of PDG2 by dialysis probes (n = 176), only those (n = 8) to a ventro-rostral part of the basal forebrain by the probes implanted on the midline consistently increased slow-wave sleep (SWS), by 51 +/- 6 min (mean +/- SEM) above the baseline value (111 +/- 11 min) [6].
  • CT and C-6S-PG spread laterally from the midline to the DREZ by Postnatal Day 3, correlating exactly with the end of the critical period [7].
  • Overall, the present results support the idea that the NI is a distinct region of the pontine periventricular gray, and together with the superior central (median raphé) and interpeduncular nuclei the NI appears to form a midline behavior control network of the brainstem [8].
  • 5. Transection of the commissure of Probst produced marked deficits in midline sound localization [9].
  • This zone is likely to act as 1) a chemoattractant for the growth cones of the LRN, ION, and ECN, and 2) a decision-making center, which instructs the somata of these neurons to cross the midline or not, ultimately governing the crossed or uncrossed pattern of their projection to their common target, the cerebellum [10].

High impact information on Mid1

  • Squeezing axons out of the gray matter: a role for slit and semaphorin proteins from midline and ventral spinal cord [11].
  • Floor plate cells at the ventral midline of the neural tube express a diffusible chemoattractant, netrin-1, that attracts a group of ventrally directed axons [12].
  • We demonstrate how commissural interneurons (CINs), whose axons traverse the midline to innervate contralateral neurons, are organized such that distinct flexor and extensor centers in the rostral lumbar spinal cord define activity in both flexor and extensor caudal motor pools [13].
  • We show that the directed circumferential migration of basilar pontine neurons from their origin in the neuroepithelium of the dorsal hindbrain to the ventral midline involves the extension of long (>1 mm) leading processes, which marker analyses suggest are molecularly distinct from axons [14].
  • Here we demonstrate that the ventral midline floor plate (FP) chemorepels two types of ipsilaterally projecting axons, one from the alar plate and another from the basal plate in the mesencephalon [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Mid1


Biological context of Mid1

  • Here, we report that the rate of sequence divergence of the 3' end of the Fxy gene is much higher (estimated at 170-fold higher for synonymous sites) when pseudoautosomal (present on both the X and Y chromosomes) than when X-unique [21].
  • METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a midline laparotomy (i.e., soft-tissue trauma induced) and were then bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of the maximal shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer's lactate [22].
  • Activated Neu expression in the midline glia suppressed apoptosis, similar to that seen with activated Drosophila EGF-R expression [23].
  • However, sequencing PAR and non-PAR introns of the Fxy gene in four Mus taxa, we found an increase of only twofold to fivefold [24].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that 5-HT(7) receptors are implicated in the effect of 5-HT on sAHP in intralaminar and midline thalamic neurones, an effect that is mediated by the cAMP second-messenger cascade [25].

Anatomical context of Mid1


Associations of Mid1 with chemical compounds

  • Rat pups were reared to P12, at which time glass pins coated with 1, 1'-dioctodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate were placed in fixed tissue in the commissure of Probst where DNLL fibers cross the midline [31].
  • The neurochemical identities of afferents to the midline thalamus were investigated in chloral hydrate-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats [32].
  • A molecule which is unique to the roof plate when axons grow close to, but do not cross, the dorsal midline is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), keratan sulfate [33].
  • Furthermore, pathologic changes in the mammillary and several midline intralaminar nuclei begin after thiamine administration and reinstitution of thiamine-replete diet to animals in more severe stages of thiamine deficiency [34].
  • Serotonin suppresses the slow afterhyperpolarization in rat intralaminar and midline thalamic neurones by activating 5-HT(7) receptors [25].

Physical interactions of Mid1


Regulatory relationships of Mid1

  • We show that during the initial appearance and subsequent maturation of OPCs, BMP4 was expressed specifically in the dorsal midline and its expression was correlated spatially and temporally with phospho-Smad 1+, BMP4-responsive cells [36].
  • In the adult rat thalamus, calretinin immunoreactivity is intensely expressed in some intralaminar and midline nuclei, as well as in selected regions of the reticular nucleus [37].
  • The results reported here show that closely related members of the HNF-3/fork head gene family are expressed by axial midline cell groups involved in neural induction and patterning and suggest the involvement of these genes in the development of the vertebrate neuraxis [38].
  • Vimentin expression was not detected in the MEE prior to rotation but was specifically upregulated in the MEE following rotation and prior to midline contact and continued in the MES and in epithelial cells identifiable during the breakdown of the MES [39].

Other interactions of Mid1

  • The PYY probe hybridized with two populations of neurons in the brainstem: one dispersed along the midline in the rostral medulla and another in the lateral caudal medulla (A1 region) [40].
  • NR2D mRNA localized exclusively to those diencephalic nuclei that have a fourth, distinct pharmacological profile (typified by the midline thalamic nuclei) [41].
  • High expression of mGluR1 mRNA mainly occurred in midline nuclei such as the centromedial/centrolateral (CM/CL) nuclei, parafascicular and submedius nuclei, and in the ventroposteromedial (VPM) and posterior (Po) nuclei [42].
  • This quantitative increase was first apparent in the midline structures and then in the other thalamic territories which are CB-positive in adulthood, and followed a mediolateral gradient [43].
  • Prenatal exposure to selective COX-2 inhibitors does not increase the risk of ventricular septal and midline defects in rat when compared to non-selective drugs and historic control [44].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mid1

  • During the fusion of rodent embryo palatal shelves, the cells of the outer epithelial layer slough off, allowing the cells of the medial edge basal layer to form a midline seam that undergoes epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, as judged by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry [45].
  • Rats (n = 12; 270 to 300 g) were lightly anesthetized with ether and a 6-cm midline laparotomy performed (i.e., trauma induced) [46].
  • Neuroanatomically in the spinal cord, a significant increase of midline crossing corticospinal fibers originating in the unlesioned sensorimotor cortex was found in 7B12-treated groups, reaching 2.3 +/- 1.5% after PCI (control group: 1.1 +/- 0.5%) and 4.5 +/- 2.2% after MCAO in SHR rats (control group: 1.8 +/- 0.8%) [47].
  • In contrast, electrical stimulation of the midline (interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus) 1 mm medial to the DMRF did not change CBF [48].
  • By in situ hybridization analysis we show that transitin mRNA is expressed by midline radial glial structures, by several axon commissures, and by Bergmann glia of the developing cerebelium [49].


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  12. The axonal chemoattractant netrin-1 is also a chemorepellent for trochlear motor axons. Colamarino, S.A., Tessier-Lavigne, M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
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  23. Genetic identification of effectors downstream of Neu (ErbB-2) autophosphorylation sites in a Drosophila model. Settle, M., Gordon, M.D., Nadella, M., Dankort, D., Muller, W., Jacobs, J.R. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. How strong is the mutagenicity of recombination in mammals? Huang, S.W., Friedman, R., Yu, N., Yu, A., Li, W.H. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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