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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Chemical-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration and elevations in TNFalpha, TNFbeta, IL-1alpha, IP-10, and MCP-1 mRNA in osteopetrotic (op/op) mice.

The osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse, deficient in biologically active colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), was used to examine the role of microglia in chemical-induced trauma. Op/op mice and normal phenotype littermates (non-op/op) received an acute i.p. injection of the hippocampal toxicant, trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT; 1.5 or 2.0 mg/kg). At 2.0 mg/kg, both mice displayed severe degeneration of dentate granule neurons. At 1.5 mg/kg, non-op/op mice showed a limited punctate pattern of neuronal death while op/op mice showed prominent neuronal death. TMT-induced astrocyte reactivity was similar in both groups. RNase protection assays were conducted on hippocampal tissue at 24 hr post-TMT. Elevations were seen in mRNA levels for the host response genes: intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1; non-op/op 80%, op/op 85%), the protease inhibitor EB22 (non-op/op 60%, op/op 300%), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; non-op/op 300%, op/op 480%) within 24 hr. Macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) mRNA levels were lower in all op/op mice and were not induced by TMT exposure. Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNA levels were elevated in non-op/op mice while mRNA levels for interferon inducible protein (IP-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) were elevated in op/op mice. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) mRNA levels were significantly elevated in both non-op/op (100%) and op/op (600%) mice. TNFbeta mRNA levels in op/op mice were elevated 200% and interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) 150%. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed a TMT-induced elevation in INFalpha and INFbeta mRNA levels and no elevation of INFgamma. mRNA levels of the CSF-1 receptor, c-fms, were unaltered.[1]


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