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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

TNF-alpha gene and proton radiotherapy in an orthotopic brain tumor model.

The major goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TNF-alpha gene therapy (pGL1-TNF-alpha) in combination with proton radiation in an orthotopic brain tumor model. C6 glioma cells were implanted into the left hemibrain of athymic rats (day 0). On day 5, pGL1-TNF-alpha (19 microg/10 microl) was injected into the same site; appropriate control groups were included. Proton irradiation (10 Gy, single fraction) was performed 18-20 h thereafter and, on day 10, a portion of animals from each group was assayed. Nearly all tumor-bearing groups had lower body mass compared to those without tumor; brain mass was somewhat increased with plasmid (pGL1-TNF-alpha or pWS4) injection (p<0.05). Histopathological analysis of brain sections revealed that rats receiving pGL1-TNF-alpha/proton irradiation had the smallest tumors and lowest number of mitotic tumor cells, although survival time for animals kept long-term was not significantly prolonged. A decline in leukocyte populations was noted with combination treatment compared to controls (p<0.05), but no differences were found compared to groups receiving each modality alone. Based on DNA synthesis, the pGL1-TNF-alpha/proton irradiated group had the highest levels of leukocyte activation. The highest percentage of lymphocytes expressing the CD71 activation marker occurred with pGL1-TNF-alpha, whereas the proton-irradiated group had the highest percentage of activated NK cells (NK1.1+/CD71+). No significant differences were found in erythrocyte and thrombocyte numbers, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Overall, the data indicate that pGL1-TNF-alpha/proton treatment results in a measurable antitumor effect and is safe under the conditions used.[1]


  1. TNF-alpha gene and proton radiotherapy in an orthotopic brain tumor model. Gridley, D.S., Baer, J.R., Cao, J.D., Miller, G.M., Kim, D.W., Timiryasova, T.M., Fodor, I., Slater, J.M. Int. J. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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