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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate nitric oxide-enhanced transcriptional expression of interferon-beta.

Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation are critical for initiating the transcriptional expression of cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and other factors in the macrophage immune response. Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous free radical, is a product of macrophages that mediates inflammatory and cytotoxic processes in the immune system. Here we report the effects of NO on MAP kinase signaling and NF-kappaB activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and correlate these effects to the induction target genes, including interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and IkappaB-alpha. LPS alone induced a rapid phosphorylation of the stress-activated MAP kinases: c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Simultaneous treatment with LPS and the NO donor, diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO), enhanced and prolonged JNK and p38 phosphorylation. Similarly, DEA/NO prolonged the LPS-induced degradation of the NF-kappaB inhibitory subunit, IkappaB-alpha, despite an increase in IkappaB-alpha mRNA levels. Whereas DEA/NO alone was sufficient to induce JNK and p38 phosphorylation, it was not sufficient to cause IkappaB-alpha degradation. The enhancement of IkappaB-alpha degradation by DEA/NO correlated with an increase in the nuclear levels of the p50 and p65 subunits and DNA-binding activity determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. DEA/NO and an additional NO donor, MAHMA/NO, are further demonstrated to enhance the transcriptional expression of the IFN-beta gene. The results suggest a role for NO in enhancing and propagating inflammatory conditions and the immune response.[1]


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