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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Protective role of hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase in lithocholic acid-induced liver toxicity.

Supplement of 1% lithocholic acid (LCA) in the diet for 5-9 days resulted in elevated levels of the marker for liver damage aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities in both farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-null and wild-type female mice. The levels were clearly higher in wild-type mice than in FXR-null mice, despite the diminished expression of a bile salt export pump in the latter. Consistent with liver toxicity marker activities, serum and liver levels of bile acids, particularly LCA and taurolithocholic acid, were clearly higher in wild-type mice than in FXR-null mice after 1% LCA supplement. Marked increases in hepatic sulfating activity for LCA (5.5-fold) and hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (St) 2a (5.8-fold) were detected in liver of FXR-null mice. A 7.4-fold higher 3alpha-sulfated bile acid concentration was observed in bile of FXR-null mice fed an LCA diet compared with that of wild-type mice. Liver St2a content was inversely correlated with levels of alkaline phosphatase. In contrast, microsomal LCA 6beta-hydroxylation was not increased and was in fact lower in FXR-null mice compared in wild-type mice. Clear decreases in mRNA encoding sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1, and liver-specific organic anion transporter-1 function in bile acid import were detected in LCA-fed mice. These transporter levels are higher in FXR-null mice than wild-type mice after 1% LCA supplement. No obvious changes were detected in the Mrp2, Mrp3, and Mrp4 mRNAs. These results indicate hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase-mediated LCA sulfation as a major pathway for protection against LCA-induced liver damage. Furthermore, Northern blot analysis using FXR-null, pregnane X receptor-null, and FXR-pregnane X receptor double-null mice suggests a repressive role of these nuclear receptors on basal St2a expression.[1]


  1. Protective role of hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase in lithocholic acid-induced liver toxicity. Kitada, H., Miyata, M., Nakamura, T., Tozawa, A., Honma, W., Shimada, M., Nagata, K., Sinal, C.J., Guo, G.L., Gonzalez, F.J., Yamazoe, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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