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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Oxidant-induced priming of the macrophage involves activation of p38 mitogen- activated protein kinase through an Src-dependent pathway.

BACKGROUND: Resuscitated hemorrhagic shock predisposes patients to the development of organ dysfunction, particularly to lung injury. Ischemia/reperfusion during shock is believed to prime the immune system for an exaggerated inflammatory response to a second delayed stimulus. We previously reported an in vitro model of oxidant-induced priming of the macrophage to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) involves the Src family of tyrosine kinases. Because the Src family has been shown to activate the p38 mitogen- activated protein kinase ( MAPK) pathway, we hypothesize that LPS signaling after oxidant stress involves the p38 pathway and is activated by Src kinases. METHODS: The murine macrophage cell line, Raw 264.7, was first incubated with H(2)O(2) 100 micromol/L for 1 hour and then with low dose LPS 0.01 microg/mL for 5 to 45 minutes. In a separate experiment, the cells were pretreated with PP2 or SB203580, a specific inhibitor of the Src family and p38 respectively. The phosphorylation of p38, representative of its activation, was assessed in whole cell lysates by use of Western blotting. NF-kappaB translocation was detected by immunofluorescence with anti-p65 antibody. RESULTS: There is a time dependent earlier activation of p38 by oxidant stress. H(2)O(2) augmented the LPS-induced p38 phosphorylation. The Src inhibitor, PP2, prevented only the LPS-induced earlier phosphorylation after oxidant stress and had no effect on LPS activation of p38 alone. The p38 inhibitor had no effect in preventing NF-kappaB translocation in either the LPS- or H(2)O(2)/LPS-exposed cells. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidant stress generated during global ischemia/reperfusion activates p38 MAPK in an Src-dependent manner. Oxidants seem to alter the LPS-induced activation of p38. P38 does not seem to have a direct role in leading to oxidant- induced NF-kappaB translocation but may affect other oxidant-induced transcription factors. This altered pathway provides an alternative avenue to target therapy during the oxidant-induced priming of the macrophage induced by trauma resuscitation.[1]


  1. Oxidant-induced priming of the macrophage involves activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase through an Src-dependent pathway. Khadaroo, R.G., Parodo, J., Powers, K.A., Papia, G., Marshall, J.C., Kapus, A., Rotstein, O.D. Surgery (2003) [Pubmed]
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