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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bile salt-induced hepatocyte apoptosis involves epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hydrophobic bile acids induce CD95-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis. METHODS: The mechanisms of bile acid-induced CD95 activation were studied in 24-hour cultured rat hepatocytes, in situ-perfused rat livers, and livers from bile duct-ligated rats. RESULTS: Within 1 minute, the proapoptotic bile salts taurolithocholate-3-sulfate and glycochenodeoxycholate induced oxidative stress and EGF receptor (EGF-R) tyrosine phosphorylation followed by rapid c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Thereafter, EGF-R associated with CD95 with subsequent CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation, CD95 membrane targeting, and death-inducing signal complex (DISC) formation. All of these responses were also triggered by taurochenodeoxycholate except that DISC formation only occurred in the presence of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors. No activation of EGF-R or CD95 was observed with tauroursodeoxycholate or taurocholate. Taurolithocholate-3-sulfate-induced EGF-R phosphorylation was sensitive to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and genistein, whereas CD95/EGF-R association was inhibited by NAC, JNK, or protein kinase C inhibition but not by AG1478. However, the latter compound as well as NAC, genistein, inhibition of JNK, or protein kinase C inhibited CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation, membrane trafficking, and DISC formation. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of apoptosis by hydrophobic bile salts involves EGF-R activation and EGF-R-dependent CD95 tyrosine phosphorylation, which triggers CD95 membrane targeting and Fas- associated death domain/caspase-8 recruitment. The latter step is apparently also controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.[1]


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