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Chemical Compound Review

HMDB00036     2-[4-[(3R,5S,7R,12S)-3,7,12- trihydroxy-10...

Synonyms: N-choloyl-taurine
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Disease relevance of Taurocholate

  • Bile flow was diminished within 10-20 min of the start of an infusion of 0.05 mumol, 100 g-1 body weight, minute-1, administered concomitantly with an equimolar infusion of taurocholate [1].
  • Trypsin in the circulation of rats with taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis reached levels sufficient to activate endothelial and immune cells to stimulate nitric oxide and interleukin-8 production, respectively [2].
  • Tauro-beta-muricholate preserves choleresis and prevents taurocholate-induced cholestasis in colchicine-treated rat liver [3].
  • A competition experiment in the bile fistula hamster indicated that nor-UDC or its metabolites, or both, appeared to compete for canalicular transport of ursocholyltaurine (a cholyltaurine epimer) when the latter was secreted under its Vmax conditions [4].
  • Taurocholate at pH 7 could in part be responsible for the gastric mucosal injury that occurs in patients with bile reflux gastritis [5].

Psychiatry related information on Taurocholate

  • On the other hand, indomethacin pretreatment, as expected, prevented the taurocholate-induced early prostanoid biosynthesis but increased the mortality, suggesting that endogenous prostanoids play a role in cellular defense mechanisms [6].

High impact information on Taurocholate

  • Five mutations, G238V, E297G, G982R, R1153C, and R1268Q, prevented the protein from trafficking to the apical membrane, and E297G, G982R, R1153C, and R1268Q also abolished taurocholate transport activity, possibly by causing Bsep to misfold [7].
  • In human apoA-I transgenic mice, treatment with the FXR agonist taurocholic acid strongly decreased serum concentrations and liver mRNA levels of human apoA-I, which was associated with reduced serum HDL levels [8].
  • In transfected COS cells, the L243P, T262M, and double mutant (L243P/T262M) did not affect transporter protein expression or trafficking to the plasma membrane; however, transport of taurocholate and other bile acids was abolished [9].
  • Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) using degenerate primers for both the rat liver Na+-dependent taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide and rat ileal apical Na+-dependent bile acid transporter, designated Ntcp and ASBT, respectively, revealed a 206-bp product in NRC whose sequence was identical to the ASBT [10].
  • Infusion of increasing amounts of taurocholate up to maximal secretory rate led to a decline in the phospholipid and cholesterol secretion in both (+/+) and (+/-) mice in accordance to what has been observed in other species [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Taurocholate


Biological context of Taurocholate

  • The kinetics of taurocholate uptake demonstrated saturability with a Michaelis constant at 52 microM and maximum velocity of 4.5 nmol X mg-1 X protein X min-1 [17].
  • Under isotope exchange conditions, a plot of active uptake velocity versus taurocholate concentration (0.10-1.0 mM) in 2-wk-old rat membrane vesicles was linear and approached the horizontal axis, suggesting the absence of active transport [18].
  • A 50-fold increase in taurocholate pool size was observed between days 15 and 19 of gestation [19].
  • This suggested that adrenocorticosteroids stimulate the early maturation of factors controlling taurocholate pool size and tissue distribution in the rat fetus [19].
  • The distribution of taurocholate between liver, intestine, and the remainder of the carcass was determined for rats of gestational age 19 d to 5 d after birth [19].

Anatomical context of Taurocholate

  • In intact hepatocytes, the electrical potential difference across the canalicular membrane probably provides the driving force for taurocholate secretion [20].
  • These results indicate that rat liver canalicular plasma membrane contains a sodium-independent taurocholate transport system that translocates the bile acid as an anion across the membrane [20].
  • Developmental aspects of taurocholate transport into ileal brush border membrane vesicles were studied in 2-wk-old (suckling), 3-wk-old (weanling), and 6-wk-old (adolescent) rats [18].
  • Similarly, the rates of absorption from open segments of jejunum and ileum perfused with 0.4 and 1.0 mM taurocholate were nearly identical (0.232+/-0.040 and 0.255+/-0.039, respectively at 0.4 mM, and 0.470+/-0.065 and 0.431+/-0.013, respectively at 1.0 mm) (P greater than 0.2) [21].
  • As expected, concentration of taurocholate by the mucosa was readily demonstrated in adult ileal, but not in adult jejunal everted rings [21].

Associations of Taurocholate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Taurocholate

  • CONCLUSIONS: TUDC-induced stimulation of canalicular taurocholate excretion involves integrin sensing, FAK, and Src activation as upstream events for dual MAPK activation [23].
  • Second, endogenous ABCB11 transcription regulation was studied in HepG2 cells, stably expressing the rat sodium-dependent taurocholate transporter (rNtcp) cells [24].
  • Caveolin-1-overexpressing mice showed a 2.5-fold increase in taurocholate (TC) SRm, indicating increased canalicular BS transport capacity [25].
  • Both proteins carrying the polymorphisms were sorted to the lateral membrane like wild-type SLC21A6, but their transport properties for the substrates cholyltaurine and 17beta-glucuronosyl estradiol were altered [26].
  • In primary rat hepatocyte cultures, taurocholate (TCA) strongly activated JNK in a time- and concentration-dependent manner [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Taurocholate


  1. Lithocholate glucuronide is a cholestatic agent. Oelberg, D.G., Chari, M.V., Little, J.M., Adcock, E.W., Lester, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Protease-activated receptor 2 exerts local protection and mediates some systemic complications in acute pancreatitis. Namkung, W., Han, W., Luo, X., Muallem, S., Cho, K.H., Kim, K.H., Lee, M.G. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Tauro-beta-muricholate preserves choleresis and prevents taurocholate-induced cholestasis in colchicine-treated rat liver. Katagiri, K., Nakai, T., Hoshino, M., Hayakawa, T., Ohnishi, H., Okayama, Y., Yamada, T., Ohiwa, T., Miyaji, M., Takeuchi, T. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of side-chain shortening on the physiologic properties of bile acids: hepatic transport and effect on biliary secretion of 23-nor-ursodeoxycholate in rodents. Yoon, Y.B., Hagey, L.R., Hofmann, A.F., Gurantz, D., Michelotti, E.L., Steinbach, J.H. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of sodium taurocholate on the human gastric mucosa at acid and neutral pH's. Stern, A.I., Hogan, D.L., Isenberg, J.I. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Prostanoids and oxygen free radicals in early stages of experimental acute pancreatitis. Closa, D., Hotter, G., Rosello-Catafau, J., Bulbena, O., Fernandez-Cruz, L., Gelpi, E. Dig. Dis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. The role of bile salt export pump mutations in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type II. Wang, L., Soroka, C.J., Boyer, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Bile acid-activated nuclear receptor FXR suppresses apolipoprotein A-I transcription via a negative FXR response element. Claudel, T., Sturm, E., Duez, H., Torra, I.P., Sirvent, A., Kosykh, V., Fruchart, J.C., Dallongeville, J., Hum, D.W., Kuipers, F., Staels, B. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Primary bile acid malabsorption caused by mutations in the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter gene (SLC10A2). Oelkers, P., Kirby, L.C., Heubi, J.E., Dawson, P.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Rat cholangiocytes absorb bile acids at their apical domain via the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. Lazaridis, K.N., Pham, L., Tietz, P., Marinelli, R.A., deGroen, P.C., Levine, S., Dawson, P.A., LaRusso, N.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of biliary lipid secretion by mdr2 P-glycoprotein in the mouse. Oude Elferink, R.P., Ottenhoff, R., van Wijland, M., Smit, J.J., Schinkel, A.H., Groen, A.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Trefoil peptide protection of intestinal epithelial barrier function: cooperative interaction with mucin glycoprotein. Kindon, H., Pothoulakis, C., Thim, L., Lynch-Devaney, K., Podolsky, D.K. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Localization of rat pancreatitis-associated protein during bile salt-induced pancreatitis. Morisset, J., Iovanna, J., Grondin, G. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Heat stress prevents impairment of bile acid transport in endotoxemic rats by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Bolder, U., Schmidt, A., Landmann, L., Kidder, V., Tange, S., Jauch, K.W. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Activation of adenosine A1-receptor pathway induces edema formation in the pancreas of rats. Satoh, A., Shimosegawa, T., Satoh, K., Ito, H., Kohno, Y., Masamune, A., Fujita, M., Toyota, T. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Adaptive regulation of hepatic bile salt transport: effects of alloxan diabetes in the rat. Icarte, M.A., Pizarro, M., Accatino, L. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Direct determination of the driving forces for taurocholate uptake into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles. Duffy, M.C., Blitzer, B.L., Boyer, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Ontogenesis of taurocholate transport by rat ileal brush border membrane vesicles. Barnard, J.A., Ghishan, F.K., Wilson, F.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Taurocholate pool size and distribution in the fetal rat. Little, J.M., Richey, J.E., Van Thiel, D.H., Lester, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Taurocholate transport by rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles. Evidence for the presence of an Na+-independent transport system. Inoue, M., Kinne, R., Tran, T., Arias, I.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Fetal bile salt metabolism. The intestinal absorption of bile salt. Lester, R., Smallwood, R.A., Little, J.M., Brown, A.S., Piasecki, G.J., Jackson, B.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Adenosine triphosphate-dependent taurocholate transport in human liver plasma membranes. Wolters, H., Kuipers, F., Slooff, M.J., Vonk, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Involvement of integrins and Src in tauroursodeoxycholate-induced and swelling-induced choleresis. Häussinger, D., Kurz, A.K., Wettstein, M., Graf, D., Vom Dahl, S., Schliess, F. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Farnesoid X receptor and bile salts are involved in transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding the human bile salt export pump. Plass, J.R., Mol, O., Heegsma, J., Geuken, M., Faber, K.N., Jansen, P.L., Müller, M. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Hepatic overexpression of caveolins increases bile salt secretion in mice. Moreno, M., Molina, H., Amigo, L., Zanlungo, S., Arrese, M., Rigotti, A., Miquel, J.F. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. A naturally occurring mutation in the SLC21A6 gene causing impaired membrane localization of the hepatocyte uptake transporter. Michalski, C., Cui, Y., Nies, A.T., Nuessler, A.K., Neuhaus, P., Zanger, U.M., Klein, K., Eichelbaum, M., Keppler, D., Konig, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Down-regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expression by bile acids in primary rat hepatocytes is mediated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. Gupta, S., Stravitz, R.T., Dent, P., Hylemon, P.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Influence of taurocholate on hepatic clearance and biliary excretion of asialo intestinal alkaline phosphatase in the rat in vivo and in isolated perfused rat liver. Russel, F.G., Weitering, J.G., Oosting, R., Groothuis, G.M., Hardonk, M.J., Meijer, D.K. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on expression of hepatic ABC-transporters in rats. van Waarde, W.M., Verkade, H.J., Wolters, H., Havinga, R., Baller, J., Bloks, V., Müller, M., Sauer, P.J., Kuipers, F. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Down-regulation of expression and function of the rat liver Na+/bile acid cotransporter in extrahepatic cholestasis. Gartung, C., Ananthanarayanan, M., Rahman, M.A., Schuele, S., Nundy, S., Soroka, C.J., Stolz, A., Suchy, F.J., Boyer, J.L. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
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