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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Neurons containing tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues project to limbic, endocrine, auditory and spinal areas in rat.

Accumulating evidence suggests that tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) may be the endogenous ligand of the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor. The vast majority of TIP39-containing neurons are localized in two regions, the subparafascicular area at the thalamic-midbrain junction, and the medial paralemniscal nucleus in the rostral pons. In contrast to the restricted localization of TIP39-containing cell bodies, TIP39-containing fibers have a widespread distribution. TIP39 neurons were lesioned electrolytically to determine the origin of TIP39-containing fibers within different parts of the rat CNS. Following bilateral lesions of the medial subparafascicular area including the subparafascicular nucleus, TIP39-immunoreactive fibers almost completely disappeared from forebrain regions including the anterior limbic cortical areas, the shell and cone portions of the nucleus accumbens, the lateral septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdaloid nuclei, the fundus striati, the subiculum, the thalamic paraventricular nucleus, and the hypothalamic paraventricular, dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei. Unilateral lesions of the medial and the lateral subparafascicular area demonstrated that the projections are ipsilateral and that medial lesions produce higher reductions in the density of TIP39 fibers except in the amygdala and the hypothalamus. Following lesions of the medial paralemniscal nucleus, TIP39-immunoreactive fibers disappeared from the medial geniculate body, the periaqueductal gray, the deep layers of the superior colliculus, the external cortex of the inferior colliculus, the cuneiform nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the locus coeruleus, the subcoeruleus area, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, the periolivary nuclei, and the spinal cord, suggesting that these regions receive TIP39-containing fibers from the medial paralemniscal nucleus, and unilateral lesions demonstrated that the projections are ipsilateral. The projections of the TIP39-containing cells in the subparafascicular area suggest their involvement in limbic and endocrine functions, while the projections of the TIP39-containing cells in the medial paralemniscal nucleus suggest their involvement in auditory and nociceptive functions.[1]


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