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Gene Review

Pth2  -  parathyroid hormone 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Parathyroid hormone 2, RGD1559447, TIP39, Tifp39, Tip39, ...
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Disease relevance of RGD1559447_predicted

  • Intracerebroventricular administration of TIP39 (10-500 pmol/rat) significantly suppressed the plasma AVP concentration in dehydrated rats, and the maximum effect was obtained 5 min after administration (dehydration with 100 pmol/rat TIP39, 4.32 +/- 1.17 pg/ml; vs. control, 8.21 +/- 0.70 pg/ml) [1].
  • TIP39 partially reversed tactile withdrawal hypersensitivity following carageenan administration [2].

High impact information on RGD1559447_predicted

  • These results suggest that an inhibition of endogenous NO production unmasks a profound negative inotropic effect of TIP39 that is mediated by an activation of the PTH2 receptor [3].
  • Tuberoinfundibular peptide (TIP39) mRNA was found to be constitutively expressed in coronary endothelium cells, isolated cardiomyocytes, ventricles, atria, and aorta [3].
  • These results suggest that central TIP39 plays an inhibitory role in the osmoregulation and baroregulation of AVP release and that intrinsic opioid systems are involved in its mechanism [1].
  • Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) has been recently purified and identified as a selective ligand for the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor [4].
  • As a next step toward understanding its functions, we report the expression and distribution of TIP39 in the rat central nervous system [4].

Biological context of RGD1559447_predicted

  • We also defined and compared the structure-activity relationship of TIP39 on both activation of adenylyl cyclase and calcium mobilization pathways through PTH2R, finding common and differential determinants of TIP39 that are required for these pathways [5].
  • In our study of biological and molecular phenomena, we have increasingly encountered the need to detect small changes in gene expression as well as genes of low abundance, such as the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and the tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (Tip39) [6].

Anatomical context of RGD1559447_predicted

  • The neuropeptide TIP39 was recently purified from bovine hypothalamus based on the ability of the peptide to activate the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) ( Nat. Neurosci. 2 (1999) 941) [5].
  • Unilateral lesions of the medial and the lateral subparafascicular area demonstrated that the projections are ipsilateral and that medial lesions produce higher reductions in the density of TIP39 fibers except in the amygdala and the hypothalamus [7].
  • A group of neurons in the posterior thalamus and one in the lateral pons synthesize TIP39 [8].
  • TIP39 projections reach most areas of PTH2-R density, including many within the limbic system and hypothalamus [8].
  • We report that TIP39 induces Fos in the infralimbic cortex, lateral hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum and paraventricular thalamic nucleus, areas believed to be important in anxiety and depression [8].

Associations of RGD1559447_predicted with chemical compounds

  • Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) TIP39 did not change hot-plate paw withdrawal latency or formalin test behavioral responses [2].

Regulatory relationships of RGD1559447_predicted

  • Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a recently discovered neuropeptide identified on the basis of its ability to activate the PTH2 receptor, and it is thought to be the brain PTH2 receptor's endogenous ligand [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RGD1559447_predicted


  1. Centrally administered tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues inhibits arginine vasopressin release in conscious rats. Sugimura, Y., Murase, T., Ishizaki, S., Tachikawa, K., Arima, H., Miura, Y., Usdin, T.B., Oiso, Y. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues decreases pain-related affective behavior. LaBuda, C.J., Usdin, T.B. Neuroreport (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues: a new mediator of cardiac function via nitric oxide production in the rat heart. Ross, G., Engel, P., Abdallah, Y., Kummer, W., Schluter, K.D. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression and distribution of tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues in the rat central nervous system. Dobolyi, A., Palkovits, M., Usdin, T.B. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39): molecular structure and activity for parathyroid hormone 2 receptor. Della Penna, K., Kinose, F., Sun, H., Koblan, K.S., Wang, H. Neuropharmacology (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Methods to enhance signal using isotopic in situ hybridization. Ky, B., Shughrue, P.J. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Neurons containing tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues project to limbic, endocrine, auditory and spinal areas in rat. Dobolyi, A., Palkovits, M., Bodnár, I., Usdin, T.B. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues produces anxiolytic and antidepressant actions. LaBuda, C.J., Dobolyi, A., Usdin, T.B. Neuroreport (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Anatomical and physiological evidence for involvement of tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues in nociception. Dobolyi, A., Ueda, H., Uchida, H., Palkovits, M., Usdin, T.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
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