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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Suppression of innate immunity by acute ethanol administration: a global perspective and a new mechanism beginning with inhibition of signaling through TLR3.

Excessive consumption of ethanol (EtOH) suppresses innate immunity, but the mechanisms have not been fully delineated. The present study was conducted to determine whether EtOH suppresses TLR signaling in vivo in mice and to characterize the downstream effects of such suppression. Degradation of IL-1R-associated kinase 1 induced by a TLR3 ligand in peritoneal cells ( approximately 90% macrophages) was suppressed by EtOH. Phosphorylation of p38 kinase in peritoneal macrophages (F4/80(+)) was suppressed, as was nuclear translocation of p-c-Jun and p65 in peritoneal cells. EtOH decreased IL-6 and IL-12 (p40), but did not significantly affect IL-10 in peritoneal lavage fluid or in lysates of peritoneal cells. Changes in cytokine mRNAs (by RNase protection assay) in macrophages isolated by cell sorting or using Ficoll were generally consistent with changes in protein levels in cell lysates and peritoneal lavage fluid. Thus, suppression of TLR signaling and cytokine mRNA occurred in the same cells, and this suppression generally corresponded to changes in i.p. and intracellular cytokine concentrations. DNA microarray analysis revealed the suppression of an IFN-related amplification loop in peritoneal macrophages, associated with decreased expression of numerous innate immune effector genes (including cytokines and a chemokine also suppressed at the protein level). These results indicate that EtOH suppresses innate immunity at least in part by suppressing TLR3 signaling, suppressing an IFN-related amplification loop, and suppressing the induction of a wide range of innate effector molecules in addition to proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.[1]


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