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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lead-induced oxidative stress and hematological alterations and their response to combined administration of calcium disodium EDTA with a thiol chelator in rats.

The therapeutic efficacy of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (CaNa(2)EDTA) and the two thiol chelators, 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS) and monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) was studied, both individually and in combination, in reducing lead concentration in blood and soft tissues and in restoring lead induced altered biochemical variables in rats. Exposure to subacute dose of lead implicated a critical role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in altering the normal values of these variables. Exposure to lead caused a significant inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), an important enzyme in the haem synthesis pathway and glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were also accompanied by inhibition of ALAD activity in kidney, delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) activities in liver and changes in platelet counts in whole blood suggesting disturbed haem synthesis pathway. Lead exposure also led to a pronounced depletion of brain GSH contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST). Specific activities of membrane-bound enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO), were significantly inhibited on lead exposure. These biochemical changes were correlated with increased uptake of lead in blood and soft tissues. Post lead exposure treatment with MiADMSA in particular provided significant recovery in altered biochemical variables besides significant depletion of tissue lead burden. Treatment with CaNa(2)EDTA and DMPS individually had only moderate beneficial effects on tissue oxidative stress, although they were equally effective in the removal of tissue lead burden. Tissue zinc and copper levels did not depict any significant depletion, although changes like marked depletion of zinc following CaNa(2)EDTA and copper after MiADMSA administration were of some concern. Combined administration of CaNa(2)EDTA, particularly with MiADMSA, was the most effective treatment protocol compared to all other treatments. It can be concluded from our present results that combined therapy with CaNa(2)EDTA and MiADMSA proved significantly better in restoring biochemical and clinical variables over monotherapy with these chelating agents against subacute lead exposure in adult rats.[1]


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