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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Multivariate analysis of FTIR and ion chromatographic data for the quality control of tequila.

Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the chromatographic and spectroscopic data of authentic Mexican tequilas (n = 14) and commercially available samples purchased in Mexico and Germany (n = 24). The scores scatter plot of the first two principal components (PC) of the anions chloride, nitrate, sulfate, acetate, and oxalate accounting for 78% of the variability allowed a classification between tequilas bottled in Mexico and overseas; however, no discrimination between tequila categories was possible. Mexican products had a significantly (p = 0.0014) lower inorganic anion concentration (range = 1.5-5.1 mg/L; mean = 2.5 mg/L) than the products bottled in the importing countries (range = 3.3-62.6 mg/L; mean = 26.3 mg/L). FTIR allowed a rapid screening of density and ethanol as well as the volatile compounds methanol, ethyl acetate, propanol-1, isobutanol, and 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol using partial least-squares regression (precisions = 5.3-29.3%). Using PCA of the volatile compounds, a differentiation between tequila derived from "100% agave" (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, Agavaceae) and tequila produced with other fermentable sugars ("mixed"tequila) was possible. The first two PCs describe 89% of the total variability of the data. Methanol and isobutanol influenced the variability in PC1, which led to discrimination. The concentrations of methanol and isobutanol were significantly higher (methanol, p = 0.004; isobutanol, p = 0.005) in the 100% agave (methanol, 297.9 +/- 49.5; isobutanol, 251.3 +/- 34.9) than in the mixed tequilas (methanol, 197.8 +/- 118.5; isobutanol, 151.4 +/- 52.8).[1]


  1. Multivariate analysis of FTIR and ion chromatographic data for the quality control of tequila. Lachenmeier, D.W., Richling, E., López, M.G., Frank, W., Schreier, P. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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