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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nucleoside triphosphate requirements for superoxide generation and phosphorylation in a cell-free system from human neutrophils. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and diacylglycerol activate independently of protein kinase C.

The NADPH-oxidase of human neutrophils can be activated in a cell-free system comprised of plasma membrane, cytosol, and an anionic amphiphile such as arachidonate or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Recently, we showed that diacylglycerol acts synergistically with SDS in the cell-free system to stimulate superoxide generation, with concurrent phosphorylation of a 47-kDa cytosolic protein which is thought to be a component of the oxidase (Burnham, D. N., Uhlinger, D. J., and Lambeth, J. D. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 17550-17559). We report herein that when undialyzed cytosol is used along with either SDS alone or SDS plus diacylglycerol as activators, adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (ATP gamma S) and guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) both stimulated superoxide generation several fold, yielding about the same maximal velocity. ATP and GTP showed lower levels of stimulation. Stimulation by ATP gamma S and GTP gamma S was nonadditive, and showed a 5-7-fold greater specificity for GTP gamma S. ATP gamma S stimulation was inhibited by the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase inhibitor UDP. In contrast, when extensively dialyzed cytosol was used, most of the stimulation by ATP gamma S was lost, while most of that by GTP gamma S was retained. Addition of GDP restored the ability of ATP gamma S to stimulate, consistent with NDP kinase-catalyzed formation of GTP gamma S from ATP gamma S plus GDP. This activity was demonstrated directly in both cytosol and plasma membrane. Using undialyzed cytosol, phosphorylation of p47 showed a similar nonspecificity for nucleoside triphosphates, due to NDP kinase activity, but revealed the expected ATP specificity when dialyzed cytosol was used. Neither ATP gamma S nor GTP gamma S were good substrates for protein phosphorylation. Under a variety of conditions, phosphorylation of p47 or other neutrophil proteins failed to correlate with oxidase activation. The present studies indicate that SDS and diacylglycerol stimulation of superoxide generation in the cell-free system is independent of protein kinase C or other protein kinase activity, and suggest a novel role for diacylglycerol in cell regulation.[1]


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