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Chemical Compound Review

SODIUM     sodium

Synonyms: Natrium, Sodio, Sodium-23, AC1NSENP, PT-15, ...
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Disease relevance of sodium


Psychiatry related information on sodium


High impact information on sodium


Chemical compound and disease context of sodium


Biological context of sodium


Anatomical context of sodium


Associations of sodium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of sodium


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of sodium

  • After 2 weeks of sodium restriction patients were entered into an 8-week double-blind randomised crossover study of 'Slow Sodium' (Ciba) versus slow sodium placebo [41].
  • The dogs were then killed and sodium-23 NMR images of the excised hearts were obtained using a high field NMR imaging system [42].
  • 4. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed that Dac g 4-related proteins of similar molecular mass were detected in the majority of allergenic grass pollen species [43].
  • METHODS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/Western blot analysis was performed [44].
  • 1. Sodium channel current density was measured using the loose-patch voltage clamp technique [45].


  1. Letter: Sodium depletion in accelerated hypertension. Orth, H., Ritz, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Letter: Sodium bicarbonate administration during cardiac arrest. Harrison, E.E., Amey, B.D., Straub, E.J. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Resolution of acute hepatitis C after therapy with natural beta interferon. Omata, M., Yokosuka, O., Takano, S., Kato, N., Hosoda, K., Imazeki, F., Tada, M., Ito, Y., Ohto, M. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Atrial natriuretic factor and arginine vasopressin production in tumor cell lines from patients with lung cancer and their relationship to serum sodium. Gross, A.J., Steinberg, S.M., Reilly, J.G., Bliss, D.P., Brennan, J., Le, P.T., Simmons, A., Phelps, R., Mulshine, J.L., Ihde, D.C. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Renal, volume, and hormonal changes during therapeutic administration of recombinant interleukin-2 in man. Textor, S.C., Margolin, K., Blayney, D., Carlson, J., Doroshow, J. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to sodium lactate infusion in subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder. Jensen, C.F., Keller, T.W., Peskind, E.R., McFall, M.E., Veith, R.C., Martin, D., Wilkinson, C.W., Raskind, M.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Involvement of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and endogenous digitalis-like compounds in depressive disorders. Goldstein, I., Levy, T., Galili, D., Ovadia, H., Yirmiya, R., Rosen, H., Lichtstein, D. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of sodium oxybate on clinical symptoms and sleep patterns in patients with fibromyalgia. Scharf, M.B., Baumann, M., Berkowitz, D.V. J. Rheumatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Sodium oxybate for cataplexy. Lemon, M.D., Strain, J.D., Farver, D.K. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. gamma-Hydroxybutyrate/Sodium Oxybate : Neurobiology, and Impact on Sleep and Wakefulness. Pardi, D., Black, J. CNS drugs (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Letter: Sodium flux, action potential and temperature dependence. Goldman, L., Hahin, R., Begenisich, T. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Long-term feeding of sodium saccharin to nonhuman primates: implications for urinary tract cancer. Takayama, S., Sieber, S.M., Adamson, R.H., Thorgeirsson, U.P., Dalgard, D.W., Arnold, L.L., Cano, M., Eklund, S., Cohen, S.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Autoradiographic localization of voltage-dependent sodium channels on the mouse neuromuscular junction using 125I-alpha scorpion toxin. II. Sodium distribution on postsynaptic membranes. Boudier, J.L., Le Treut, T., Jover, E. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Mechanisms of the impaired diuretic and natriuretic responses to a sustained and moderate saline infusion in rats with experimental cirrhosis. López-Novoa, J.M., Santos, J.C., Caramelo, C., Fernandez-Muñoz, D., Blanchart, A., Hernando, L. Hepatology (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. A Novel Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Prevents Elastase Activation and Surface Cleavage of the Epithelial Sodium Channel Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes. Harris, M., Firsov, D., Vuagniaux, G., Stutts, M.J., Rossier, B.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Hydrocortisone and Purinergic Signaling Stimulate Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS)-Mediated Iodide Transport in Breast Cancer Cells. Dohán, O., De la Vieja, A., Carrasco, N. Mol. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Sodium lactate and hypertonic sodium chloride induce equivalent panic incidence, panic symptoms, and hypernatremia in panic disorder. Peskind, E.R., Jensen, C.F., Pascualy, M., Tsuang, D., Cowley, D., Martin, D.C., Wilkinson, C.W., Raskind, M.A. Biol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Mechanism of lactate-induced relaxation of isolated rat mesenteric resistance arteries. McKinnon, W., Aaronson, P.I., Knock, G., Graves, J., Poston, L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Sodium oxybate improves excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Black, J., Houghton, W.C. Sleep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of hypoxia-reoxygenation on microvascular endothelial function in the rat hippocampal slice. Stauton, M., Drexler, C., Dulitz, M.G., Ekbom, D.C., Schmeling, W.T., Farber, N.E. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Nucleoside triphosphate requirements for superoxide generation and phosphorylation in a cell-free system from human neutrophils. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and diacylglycerol activate independently of protein kinase C. Uhlinger, D.J., Burnham, D.N., Lambeth, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular properties of purified (sodium + potassium)-activated adenosine triphosphatases and their subunits from the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias and the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus. Perrone, J.R., Hackney, J.F., Dixon, J.F., Hokin, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. A Cysteine-scanning Mutagenesis Study of Transmembrane Domain 8 of the Electrogenic Sodium/Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1. McAlear, S.D., Bevensee, M.O. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Butyrate and trichostatin A effects on the proliferation/differentiation of human intestinal epithelial cells: induction of cyclin D3 and p21 expression. Siavoshian, S., Segain, J.P., Kornprobst, M., Bonnet, C., Cherbut, C., Galmiche, J.P., Blottière, H.M. Gut (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. X-ray microanalysis of HeLa S3 cells. II. Analysis of elemental levels during the cell cycle. Warley, A., Stephen, J., Hockaday, A., Appleton, T.C. J. Cell. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Chemotactic factor-induced activation of Na+/H+ exchange in human neutrophils. I. Sodium fluxes. Simchowitz, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of a differentiated transport function in apical membrane vesicles isolated from an established kidney epithelial cell line. Sodium electrochemical potential-mediated active sugar transport. Lever, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Active potassium transport coupled to active sodium transport in vesicles reconstituted from purified sodium and potassium ion-activated adenosine triphosphatase from the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. Hilden, S., Hokin, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Voltage-gated Sodium Channels Confer Excitability to Human Odontoblasts: POSSIBLE ROLE IN TOOTH PAIN TRANSMISSION. Allard, B., Magloire, H., Couble, M.L., Maurin, J.C., Bleicher, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Purification of bacteriorhodopsin and characterization of mature and partially processed forms. Miercke, L.J., Ross, P.E., Stroud, R.M., Dratz, E.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Site-directed mutation of arginine 282 to glutamate uncouples the movement of peptides and protons by the rabbit proton-peptide cotransporter PepT1. Meredith, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Intrauterine tracheal obstruction, a new treatment for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, decreases amniotic fluid sodium and chloride concentrations in the fetal lamb. Evrard, V.A., Flageole, H., Deprest, J.A., Vandenberghe, K., Verhaeghe, J., Lerut, T.E. Ann. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Electron Transfer from Sodium to Oriented Nitromethane, CH(3)NO(2): Probing the Spatial Extent of Unoccupied Orbitals. Brooks, P.R., Harland, P.W., Redden, C.E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. In vitro synergism between 5-fluorouracil and natural beta interferon in human colon carcinoma cells. Guglielmi, A., Aschele, C., Mori, A., Baldo, C., Russo, P., Debernardis, D., Valenti, M., Bruno, S., Taverna, M., Rosso, R. Clin. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Sodium and water reabsorption in the proximal and distal nephron in conscious pregnant rats and third trimester women. Atherton, J.C., Bielinska, A., Davison, J.M., Haddon, I., Kay, C., Samuels, R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors on cytokine-induced adhesion molecule expression by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. May, M.J., Wheeler-Jones, C.P., Pearson, J.D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Azide inhibits human cytochrome P -4502E1, 1A2, and 3A4. Salmela, K.S., Tsyrlov, I.B., Lieber, C.S. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid) promotes migration of human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Gomes, J.A., Amankwah, R., Powell-Richards, A., Dua, H.S. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Requirement for ERK Activity in Sodium Selenite-induced Apoptosis of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia-derived NB4 Cells. Han, B., Wei, W., Hua, F., Cao, T., Dong, H., Yang, T., Yang, Y., Pan, H., Xu, C. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  40. Purification and characterization of human testis aldose and aldehyde reductase. Tanimoto, T., Ohta, M., Tanaka, A., Ikemoto, I., Machida, T. Int. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  41. Double-blind randomised crossover trial of moderate sodium restriction in essential hypertension. MacGregor, G.A., Markandu, N.D., Best, F.E., Elder, D.M., Cam, J.M., Sagnella, G.A., Squires, M. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  42. Sodium nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial tissue of dogs after coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. Cannon, P.J., Maudsley, A.A., Hilal, S.K., Simon, H.E., Cassidy, F. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  43. Characterization of Dac g 4, a major basic allergen from Dactylis glomerata pollen. Leduc-Brodard, V., Inacio, F., Jaquinod, M., Forest, E., David, B., Peltre, G. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  44. Immunological characterization of anti-endothelial cell antibodies induced by cytomegalovirus infection. Toyoda, M., Petrosian, A., Jordan, S.C. Transplantation (1999) [Pubmed]
  45. Sodium channel distribution in normal and denervated rodent and snake skeletal muscle. Caldwell, J.H., Milton, R.L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1988) [Pubmed]
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