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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Novel anti-inflammatory role for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and interleukin-1beta-induced inflammatory gene expression.

Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) is a serine/threonine kinase with a broad array of cellular targets, such as cytoskeletal proteins and transcription factors. Recent studies with GSK-3beta-null mice showed impaired NFkappaB-mediated survival responses. Because NFkappaB serves a dual role as a key regulator of cytokine-induced inflammatory gene expression and apoptosis, we investigated whether modulation of GSK-3beta expression affects cytokine-induced and NFkappaB-mediated inflammatory gene expression. We observed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) treatment of primary cultures of human microvascular cells reduced net endogenous active GSK-3beta protein levels while inducing inflammatory cytokine ( IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ( MCP-1)) expression. Interestingly, inhibition of GSK-3beta by antisense oligonucleotides or pharmacological agent (10 mm lithium) potentiated TNF- induced expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 by 2-6-fold suggesting that inhibition of GSK-3beta under inflammatory conditions (exposure to TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) may contribute to enhanced cytokine expression. Overexpression of GSK-3beta in endothelial cells, in contrast, significantly inhibited (by 70%, p < 0.01) both TNF-alpha and IL-1beta- induced expression of IL-6, MCP-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Using adenoviruses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mice, overexpression of GSK-3beta significantly decreased TNF-alpha expression in lung and heart tissues (38 and 15%, respectively), further confirming the anti-inflammatory role of GSK-3beta. Overexpression of GSK-3beta did not affect the TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of NFkappaB but reduced the nuclear half-life of TNF-alpha-induced NFkappaB considerably (by as much as 9 h) and enhanced phosphorylation (by as much as 33%). Interestingly, neither endothelial cell survival nor NFkappaB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic genes was affected by GSK-3beta overexpression. We conclude that GSK-3beta selectively regulates NFkappaB-mediated inflammatory gene expression by controlling the flow of NFkappaB activity between transcription of inflammatory and survival genes.[1]


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