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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toxicity profiles in rats treated with tumorigenic and nontumorigenic triazole conazole fungicides: propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil.

Conazoles are a class of azole based fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceutical products. They have a common mode of antifungal action through inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Some members of this class have been shown to be hepatotoxic and will induce mouse hepatocellular tumors and/or rat thyroid follicular cell tumors. The particular mode of toxic and tumorigenic action for these compounds is not known, however it has been proposed that triadimefon-induced rat thyroid tumors arise through the specific mechanism of increased TSH. The present study was designed to identify commonalities of effects across the different conazoles and to determine unique features of the tissue responses that suggest a toxicity pathway and a mode of action for the observed thyroid response for triadimefon. Male Wistar/Han rats were treated with triadimefon (100, 500, 1800 ppm), propiconazole (100, 500, 2500 ppm), or myclobutanil (100, 500, 2000 ppm) in feed for 4, 30, or 90 days. The rats were evaluated for clinical signs, body and liver weight, histopathology of thyroid and liver, hepatic metabolizing enzyme activity, and serum T3, T4, TSH, and cholesterol levels. There was a dose-dependent increase in liver weight but not body weight for all treatments. The indication of cytochrome induction, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD) activity, had a dose-related increase at all time points for all conazoles. Uridine diphopho-glucuronosyl transferase ( UDPGT), the T4 metabolizing enzyme measured as glucuronidation of 1-naphthol, was induced to the same extent after 30 and 90 days for all three conazoles. Livers from all high dose treated rats had centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy after 4 days, while only triadimefon and propiconazole treated rats had hepatocyte hypertrophy after 30 days, and only triadimefon treated rats had hepatocyte hypertrophy after 90 days. Thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy, increased follicular cell proliferation, and colloid depletion were present only after 30 days in rats treated with the high dose of triadimefon. A dose-dependent decrease in T4 was present after 4 days with all 3 compounds but only the high doses of propiconazole and triadimefon produced decreased T4 after 30 days. T3 was decreased after high-dose triadimefon after 4 days and in a dose-dependent manner for all compounds after 30 days. Thyroid hormone levels did not differ from control values after 90 days and TSH was not increased in any exposure group. A unique pattern of toxic responses was not identified for each conazole and the hypothesized mode of action for triadimefon-induced thyroid gland tumors was not supported by the data.[1]


  1. Toxicity profiles in rats treated with tumorigenic and nontumorigenic triazole conazole fungicides: propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil. Wolf, D.C., Allen, J.W., George, M.H., Hester, S.D., Sun, G., Moore, T., Thai, S.F., Delker, D., Winkfield, E., Leavitt, S., Nelson, G., Roop, B.C., Jones, C., Thibodeaux, J., Nesnow, S. Toxicologic pathology (2006) [Pubmed]
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