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Chemical Compound Review

Bayleton     1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3- dimethyl-1-(1,2,4...

Synonyms: Azocene, Fenxiunin, Haleton, Acizol, Adifon, ...
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Disease relevance of Haleton


Psychiatry related information on Haleton

  • The initiation and cessation of feeding behavior is explained on the basis of the ischymetric hypothesis (from ISCHYROS meaning "Mighty One" or power) [6].
  • Since alpha MPT did not antagonize the effect of triadimefon, these data suggest that increased motor activity produced by triadimefon is not mediated through release of newly synthesized catecholamines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[7]
  • The present experiments designed to characterize the stereotyped behavior induced by triadimefon used a computer-supported observational method, and tested the hypothesis that these observed effects involved central dopaminergic systems [8].
  • Female mental health nurses fighting with police in the Radcliff Strike in 1922 portrays a much less famous image in nursing's history than Florence Nightingale with her lamp [9].

High impact information on Haleton

  • These results strongly suggest that triadimefon inhibits the reaction catalysed by DWF4 protein and induces BR deficiency in plants [10].
  • Triadimefon (Bayleton), a widely used triazole-type fungicide, affects gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and 14 alpha-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis [10].
  • In the triadimefon-treated Arabidopsis cells, the CPD gene in the BR-biosynthesis pathway was up-regulated, probably due to feedback regulation caused by BR deficiency [10].
  • It was found that, at pH 2-4, sulfated beta-CD exhibited strong chiral recognition towards both triadimefon and triadimenol [11].
  • In conjunction with solvent extraction and subsequent enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE), this new enantioseparation method was applied successfully in the study of stereoselectivity associated with the biotransformation of triadimefon to triadimenol by soil microorganisms [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Haleton


Biological context of Haleton


Anatomical context of Haleton

  • Absolute testis weights were increased at PND1 by myclobutanil, at PND22 by myclobutanil and triadimefon, and at PND50 by propiconazole and triadimefon treatment [3].
  • A unique pattern of toxic responses was not identified for each conazole and the hypothesized mode of action for triadimefon-induced thyroid gland tumors was not supported by the data [5].
  • Larvae developed from embryos treated with Imazalil and Triadimefon showed alterations of the anterior structures of the trunk: papillary nerves and the anterior central nervous system failed to correctly differentiate, as showed by immunostaining with anti-beta-tubulin antibody [18].
  • Fertilization rate significantly decreased after 30min exposure of sperm to 25muM Imazalil (P<0.0001) and after exposure of both gametes to 50muM Imazalil (P<0.05) and 1mM Triadimefon (P<0.0001) as compared to controls [18].
  • Lack of synergism may be due to incomplete digestion of the cell wall by endochitinase, so that the effect of Bayleton at the cell membrane is not enhanced [19].

Associations of Haleton with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Haleton

  • Many of these CYP, XME and transporter genes are regulated by xeno-sensing nuclear receptors, and hierarchical clustering of CAR/PXR-regulated genes demonstrated the similarities of toxicogenomic responses in liver between all four triazoles and in testis between myclobutanil and triadimefon [21].
  • The present results indicate that triadimefon acts in vivo as a DA transporter inhibitor and could also act on the serotoninergic system [23].
  • DESIGN: Adolescents were shown one print advertisement for each of five cigarette brands (Camel, Marlboro, Kool, Benson & Hedges, and Lucky Strike) [24].
  • Finally at Rainbow, catalase and lipid peroxidation are dominant, suggesting that resistance of mussels to metal toxicity at these vent fields decreases in the sequence Menez-Gwen > Lucky Strike and Rainbow [25].
  • In order to analyse Krox20 mRNA levels in rat embryos exposed in vitro to the triazole derivative triadimefon, a semi-quantitative approach utilising the competitive RT-PCR was chosen [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Haleton


  1. Cell-based Delivery of Oncolytic Viruses: A New Strategic Alliance for a Biological Strike Against Cancer. Power, A.T., Bell, J.C. Mol. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Gene expression profiling in the liver of CD-1 mice to characterize the hepatotoxicity of triazole fungicides. Goetz, A.K., Bao, W., Ren, H., Schmid, J.E., Tully, D.B., Wood, C., Rockett, J.C., Narotsky, M.G., Sun, G., Lambert, G.R., Thai, S.F., Wolf, D.C., Nesnow, S., Dix, D.J. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Disruption of testosterone homeostasis as a mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole fungicides in the male rat. Goetz, A.K., Ren, H., Schmid, J.E., Blystone, C.R., Thillainadarajah, I., Best, D.S., Nichols, H.P., Strader, L.F., Wolf, D.C., Narotsky, M.G., Rockett, J.C., Dix, D.J. Toxicol. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Neurobehavioral effect of triadimefon, a triazole fungicide, in male and female rats. Moser, V.C., MacPhail, R.C. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Toxicity profiles in rats treated with tumorigenic and nontumorigenic triazole conazole fungicides: propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil. Wolf, D.C., Allen, J.W., George, M.H., Hester, S.D., Sun, G., Moore, T., Thai, S.F., Delker, D., Winkfield, E., Leavitt, S., Nelson, G., Roop, B.C., Jones, C., Thibodeaux, J., Nesnow, S. Toxicologic pathology (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Physiological determinant of hunger, satiation, and satiety. Nicolaidis, S., Even, P. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence for monoaminergic involvement in triadimefon-induced hyperactivity. Crofton, K.M., Boncek, V.M., MacPhail, R.C. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Triadimefon, a triazole fungicide, induces stereotyped behavior and alters monoamine metabolism in rats. Walker, Q.D., Lewis, M.H., Crofton, K.M., Mailman, R.B. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Women in mental health nursing: angels or custodians? Chatterton, C. International history of nursing journal : IHNJ. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Triadimefon, a fungicidal triazole-type P450 inhibitor, induces brassinosteroid deficiency-like phenotypes in plants and binds to DWF4 protein in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway. Asami, T., Mizutani, M., Shimada, Y., Goda, H., Kitahata, N., Sekimata, K., Han, S.Y., Fujioka, S., Takatsuto, S., Sakata, K., Yoshida, S. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Simultaneous chiral separation of triadimefon and triadimenol by sulfated beta-cyclodextrin-mediated capillary electrophoresis. Wu, Y.S., Lee, H.K., Li, S.F. Electrophoresis (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Triadimefon and triadimenol: effects on monoamine uptake and release. Walker, Q.D., Mailman, R.B. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. A structure-activity relationship for the neurotoxicity of triazole fungicides. Crofton, K.M. Toxicol. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparative sensitivity of neurobehavioral tests for chemical screening. Moser, V.C., MacPhail, R.C. Neurotoxicology (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat. Knaak, J.B., Yee, K., Ackerman, C.R., Zweig, G., Wilson, B.W. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Surface photochemistry of pesticides: an approach using diffuse reflectance and chromatography techniques. Da Silva, J.P., Vieira Ferreira, L.F. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of clomiphene on fatty acids, sterols and membrane fluidity in clavine producing Claviceps purpurea strains. Pazoutová, S., Kren, V., Rezanka, T., Sajdl, P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Toxic effects of two pesticides, Imazalil and Triadimefon, on the early development of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata (Chordata, Ascidiacea). Pennati, R., Groppelli, S., Zega, G., Biggiogero, M., De Bernardi, F., Sotgia, C. Aquat. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Combination of Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase and a membrane-affecting fungicide on control of Alternaria leaf spot in transgenic broccoli plants. Mora, A., Earle, E.D. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Combination of solid-phase extraction and field-amplified concentration for trace analysis of organonitrogen pesticides by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. He, Y., Lee, H.K. Electrophoresis (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides. Tully, D.B., Bao, W., Goetz, A.K., Blystone, C.R., Ren, H., Schmid, J.E., Strader, L.F., Wood, C.R., Best, D.S., Narotsky, M.G., Wolf, D.C., Rockett, J.C., Dix, D.J. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Evaluation of solid-phase extraction and stir-bar sorptive extraction for the determination of fungicide residues at low-microg kg(-1) levels in grapes by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Juan-García, A., Mañes, J., Font, G., Picó, Y. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of triadimefon on extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA in adult rat striatum. Gagnaire, F., Micillino, J.C. Toxicology (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements: links between exposure, liking, and the appeal of smoking. Arnett, J.J., Terhanian, G. Tobacco control. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation in Bathymodiolus azoricus from Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields. Bebianno, M.J., Company, R., Serafim, A., Camus, L., Cosson, R.P., Fiala-Médoni, A. Aquat. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Krox20 is down-regulated following triazole in vitro embryonic exposure: A polycompetitor-based assay. Massa, V., Gaudenzi, G., Sangiorgio, L., Cotelli, F., Giavini, E. Toxicol. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. A dual symbiosis shared by two mussel species, Bathymodiolus azoricus and Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae), from hydrothermal vents along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Duperron, S., Bergin, C., Zielinski, F., Blazejak, A., Pernthaler, A., McKiness, Z.P., DeChaine, E., Cavanaugh, C.M., Dubilier, N. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of glutathione S-transferase from human liver by isoelectric focusing in a urea minigel system. Killick, K.A. Anal. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Separation of triadimefon and triadimenol enantiomers and diastereoisomers by supercritical fluid chromatography. del Nozal, M.J., Toribio, L., Bernal, J.L., Castaño, N. Journal of chromatography. A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcriptional profiles in liver from mice treated with hepatotumorigenic and nonhepatotumorigenic triazole conazole fungicides: propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil. Ward, W.O., Delker, D.A., Hester, S.D., Thai, S.F., Wolf, D.C., Allen, J.W., Nesnow, S. Toxicologic pathology (2006) [Pubmed]
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