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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Alteration in the gene expression pattern of primary monocytes after adhesion to endothelial cells.

Monocytes originate from precursors made in the bone and remain in the circulation for nearly 24 h. Much effort has been done to identify the molecules regulating transendothelial migration of monocytes during inflammatory conditions. In contrast, considerably less is known about the process of constitutive monocyte emigration although nearly 340 million monocytes leave the circulation each day in healthy individuals. Previous studies indicated that chemokines were up-regulated in monocytes cocultured with endothelial cells that induce the retraction of the latter cell type, thereby increasing vascular permeability. Thus, we hypothesized that the utilities required for efficient constitutive monocyte extravasation are generated by monocytes themselves because of adhesion to naïve endothelial cells. To test this hypothesis, cDNA microarray analysis was performed to determine the changes in the gene expression pattern of primary monocytes that have been attached to endothelial cells compared with monocytes that were held in suspension, and we were able to identify three major groups of genes. The first group includes genes such as matrix metalloproteinase 1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tissue transglutaminase 2, which are likely required for monocyte extravasation. The second group consists of genes that are expressed in phagocytes such as caveolin-1 and CD74. Finally, the third group comprises genes that are expressed in cells of endothelial tissue and cartilage including E-selectin, fibronectin-1, matrix Gla protein, and aggrecanase-2. In summary, we conclude that adhesion of peripheral blood monocytes to naïve endothelial cells has two effects: mandatory extravasation-specific genes are regulated, and the differentiation program of monocytes is initiated.[1]


  1. Alteration in the gene expression pattern of primary monocytes after adhesion to endothelial cells. Thomas-Ecker, S., Lindecke, A., Hatzmann, W., Kaltschmidt, C., Zänker, K.S., Dittmar, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
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