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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 

Nrf2/ARE regulated antioxidant gene expression in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in oxidative stress: implications for atherosclerosis and preeclampsia.

Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, chronic renal failure and preeclampsia readily leads to impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation and vascular injury. To counteract ROS- and electrophile-mediated injury, cells can induce a number of genes encoding phase II detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins. A cis-acting transcriptional regulatory element, designated as antioxidant response element (ARE) or electrophile response element (EpRE), mediates the transcriptional activation of genes such as heme oxygenase-1, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthethase, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase. Other antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase and non-enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione are also involved in scavenging ROS. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a member of the Cap nno Collar family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, plays an important role in ARE-mediated antioxidant gene expression. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) normally sequesters Nrf2 in the cytoplasm in association with the actin cytoskeleton, but upon oxidation of cysteine residues Nrf2 dissociates from Keap1, translocates to the nucleus and binds to ARE sequences leading to transcriptional activation of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying genes. Protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) have been implicated in the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling. We here review the evidence that the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway plays an important role in vascular homeostasis and the defense of endothelial and smooth muscle cells against sustained oxidative stress associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis and preeclampsia.[1]

References

  1. Nrf2/ARE regulated antioxidant gene expression in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in oxidative stress: implications for atherosclerosis and preeclampsia. Mann, G.E., Niehueser-Saran, J., Watson, A., Gao, L., Ishii, T., de Winter, P., Siow, R.C. Sheng. Li. Xue. Bao (2007) [Pubmed]
 
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