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Chemical Compound Review

glutathione     (2S)-2-amino-4-[[(1S)-1...

Synonyms: Glutinal, Isethion, Neuthion, Tathione, Triptide, ...
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Disease relevance of glutathione


High impact information on glutathione


Psychiatry related information on glutathione

  • Up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxins, catalases, and cytochrome c peroxidase in the glrA-deletion strain revealed interplay between the glutathione system and both the thioredoxin system and hydrogen peroxide defense mechanisms [8].

Biological context of glutathione


Anatomical context of glutathione


Associations of glutathione with other chemical compounds

  • Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine enhanced the anti-cancer activity of melphalan in preclinical models of multiple myeloma. [11]
  • Assuming sufficient glutathione reductase activity and non-limiting NADPH supply, the observed almost full reduction of roGFP2 in vivo suggests that a 2.5 mm cytosolic glutathione buffer would contain only 25 nm oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) [12].
  • SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, abolished glutathione elevation and cytoprotection by lactacystin [13].
  • Buthionine sulfoximine treatment resulted in a 24% reduction in canine atrial glutathione content, a reduction in atrial contractility, and an attenuation of I(Ca,L) in the canine atrial myocytes [14].
  • At the concentration that produced >80% yeast GR inhibition, 2-AAPA showed no inhibition against glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutathione synthetase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, but minimal inhibition against glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase [15].

Gene context of glutathione


  1. Effect of methylmercury on glutamate-cysteine ligase expression in the placenta and yolk sac during mouse development. Díaz, D., Krejsa, C.M., White, C.C., Charleston, J.S., Kavanagh, T.J. Reprod. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Glutathione metabolism in sepsis. Biolo, G., Antonione, R., De Cicco, M. Crit. Care Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of redox glutathione levels and gene transcription in lung inflammation: therapeutic approaches. Rahman, I., MacNee, W. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Biologic and pharmacologic regulation of mammalian glutathione synthesis. Griffith, O.W. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Hepatocyte growth factor protects rat RINm5F cell line against free fatty acid-induced apoptosis by counteracting oxidative stress. Santangelo, C., Matarrese, P., Masella, R., Di Carlo, M.C., Di Lillo, A., Scazzocchio, B., Vecci, E., Malorni, W., Perfetti, R., Anastasi, E. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. N-acetylcysteine protects the rats against phrenic nerve dysfunction in sepsis. Atis, S., Nayci, A., Ozge, A., Comelekoglu, U., Gunes, S., Bagdatoglu, O. Shock (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The involvement of oxidative stress in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Lee, M.W., Park, S.C., Kim, J.H., Kim, I.K., Han, K.S., Kim, K.Y., Lee, W.B., Jung, Y.K., Kim, S.S. Cancer Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The glutathione system of Aspergillus nidulans involves a fungus-specific glutathione S-transferase. Sato, I., Shimizu, M., Hoshino, T., Takaya, N. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  9. Methods for measuring glutathione concentration and rate of synthesis. Reid, M., Jahoor, F. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. N-actylcysteine protects Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells from lead-induced oxidative stress. Ercal, N., Treeratphan, P., Lutz, P., Hammond, T.C., Matthews, R.H. Toxicology (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine synergistically enhanced melphalan activity against preclinical models of multiple myeloma. Tagde, A., Singh, H., Kang, M.H., Reynolds, C.P. Blood. Cancer. J. (2014) [Pubmed]
  12. Redox-sensitive GFP in Arabidopsis thaliana is a quantitative biosensor for the redox potential of the cellular glutathione redox buffer. Meyer, A.J., Brach, T., Marty, L., Kreye, S., Rouhier, N., Jacquot, J.P., Hell, R. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Proteasome inhibition induces glutathione synthesis and protects cells from oxidative stress: relevance to Parkinson disease. Yamamoto, N., Sawada, H., Izumi, Y., Kume, T., Katsuki, H., Shimohama, S., Akaike, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Atrial glutathione content, calcium current, and contractility. Carnes, C.A., Janssen, P.M., Ruehr, M.L., Nakayama, H., Nakayama, T., Haase, H., Bauer, J.A., Chung, M.K., Fearon, I.M., Gillinov, A.M., Hamlin, R.L., Van Wagoner, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of a novel dithiocarbamate glutathione reductase inhibitor and its use as a tool to modulate intracellular glutathione. Seefeldt, T., Zhao, Y., Chen, W., Raza, A.S., Carlson, L., Herman, J., Stoebner, A., Hanson, S., Foll, R., Guan, X. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  16. Endothelial cell cystine uptake and glutathione increase with N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea exposure. Deneke, S.M., Lawrence, R.A., Jenkinson, S.G. Am. J. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Microglial GLT-1 is upregulated in response to herpes simplex virus infection to provide an antiviral defence via glutathione. Persson, M., Brantefjord, M., Liljeqvist, J.A., Bergström, T., Hansson, E., Rönnbäck, L. Glia (2007) [Pubmed]
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