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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) regulates the phosphorylation and function of the dopamine D3 receptor.

During conditions of moderate sodium excess, the dopaminergic system regulates blood pressure and water and electrolyte balance by engendering natriuresis. Dopamine exerts its effects on dopamine receptors, including the dopamine D(3) receptor. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4), whose gene locus (4p16.3) is linked to essential hypertension, desensitizes the D(1) receptor, another dopamine receptor. This study evaluated the role of GRK4 on D(3) receptor function in human proximal tubule cells. D(3) receptor co-segregated in lipid rafts and co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized in human proximal tubule cells and in proximal and distal tubules and glomeruli of kidneys of Wistar Kyoto rats. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and confocal microscopy revealed that agonist activation of the receptor initiated the interaction between D(3) receptor and GRK4 at the cell membrane and promoted it intracellularly, presumably en route to endosomal trafficking. Of the four GRK4 splice variants, GRK4-gamma and GRK4-alpha mediated a 3- and 2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of agonist-activated D(3) receptor, respectively. Inhibition of GRK activity with heparin or knockdown of GRK4 expression via RNA interference completely abolished p44/42 phosphorylation and mitogenesis induced by D(3) receptor stimulation. These data demonstrate that GRK4, specifically the GRK4-gamma and GRK4-alpha isoforms, phosphorylates the D(3) receptor and is crucial for its signaling in human proximal tubule cells.[1]


  1. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) regulates the phosphorylation and function of the dopamine D3 receptor. Villar, V.A., Jones, J.E., Armando, I., Palmes-Saloma, C., Yu, P., Pascua, A.M., Keever, L., Arnaldo, F.B., Wang, Z., Luo, Y., Felder, R.A., Jose, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
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