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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The role of alveolar macrophage activation and mediator production.

The role of alveolar macrophage activation and release of mediators remains unclear. In this study, this role is examined with respect to the effects of relatively selective inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism on the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. CBA/J mice were administered bleomycin (0.037 units) endotracheally to induce pulmonary fibrosis. Daily intraperitoneal injections of a lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited pulmonary fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner (15-25 mg/kg body weight), as assessed by both lung collagen synthesis and total lung hydroxyproline content. The less specific inhibitor BW755c was also effective at a dose of 25 mg/kg. In contrast, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen (15 mg/kg), was completely ineffective. Correlated with this antifibrogenic activity of NDGA was the inhibition of several other parameters of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin treatment caused a greater than threefold increase in the percentage of alveolar macrophages expressing Ia antigen (from 7.7% +/- 1.07% to 29.9% +/- 4.16% of total recoverable alveolar macrophages). NDGA, but not ibuprofen, inhibited this increase in a dose-dependent manner. Associated with this indication of macrophage stimulation was an increase in spontaneous macrophage production of fibroblast growth factor (MDGF) activity as a result of bleomycin instillation. This increase was also inhibited by NDGA treatment. In contrast, bleomycin treatment caused a reduction in alveolar macrophage interleukin-1 (IL-1) production, and NDGA treatment did not alter this reduction, which suggests that MDGF is separate from IL-1 in this case, and that MDGF played a more dominant role, at least in this model of pulmonary fibrosis. This antifibrogenic activity of NDGA was accomplished without any reduction in spontaneous macrophage prostaglandin (PG)E2 production, which suggests the selectivity (versus cyclooxygenase pathway) of NDGA inhibition and the relative lack of importance of macrophage-derived PGE2 in modulating fibrogenesis in this model. The results of this study have thus demonstrated the importance of alveolar macrophage stimulation and increased production of MDGF in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The data also suggest that both macrophage parameters are subject to regulation by arachidonate metabolites.[1]


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