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Chemical Compound Review

hydroxyproline     (2S,4R)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine- 2-carboxylic...

Synonyms: Hypro, hydroxiproline, H-Hyp-OH, L-HYP-OH, h-l-hyp-oh, ...
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Disease relevance of hydroxyproline

  • We also demonstrated that cav-1 markedly ameliorated bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as indicated by histological analysis, hydroxyproline content, and immunoblot analysis [1].
  • Urinary hydroxyproline (r = 0.29, P less than 0.001), an index of bone resorption, and serum alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.31, P less than 0.001), an index of bone formation, also increased with age and these increases correlated with increases in serum BGP (r = 0.39, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.43, P less than 0.001, respectively) [2].
  • Collagen synthesis, as measured by the formation of labeled protein-bound hydroxyproline, occurred in granulomas isolated from fibrotic livers [3].
  • In those animals with normal RV pressures at death, hypertrophy had regressed and hydroxyproline concentration was comparable to that of nonbanded and banded animals; Active and passive mechanical function remained normal [4].
  • Compared to rats inoculated on day 1 after birth, rats inoculated at 4 days of age developed consistently more osteoproliferative bone tumors that often were associated with hypercalcemia, increased serum alkaline phosphatase, and elevated urinary hydroxyproline [5].

Psychiatry related information on hydroxyproline


High impact information on hydroxyproline


Chemical compound and disease context of hydroxyproline


Biological context of hydroxyproline


Anatomical context of hydroxyproline


Associations of hydroxyproline with other chemical compounds

  • Relaxin also restored bleomycin-induced collagen accumulation, as measured by lung hydroxyproline content, to normal levels (P < 0.05) [28].
  • The estimated molecular weights of the two glycopeptides by sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis were found to be 62,000 and 36,000 and both were found to contain hydroxyproline and relatively high amount of glycine (11 and 15 per cent, respectively) [29].
  • Similar concentrations of tryptase resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in collagen synthesis as determined both by incorporation of [3H]proline into collagen, and by assay of hydroxyproline concentrations in the supernatants [30].
  • O-linked arabinosylation of the hydroxyproline residues of extensin occurs in cis-cisternae, and glycosylated molecules pass through all cisternae before they are packaged into secretory vesicles in the monensin-sensitive, trans-Golgi network [31].
  • MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density of the spine, hip, total body, and forearm; serum total alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin levels at 6-month intervals; and 24-hour urine creatinine and hydroxyproline excretion at baseline, 12 months, and 42 months [32].

Gene context of hydroxyproline

  • RESULTS: Smad7-overexpressing BDL rats displayed reduced collagen and alpha-SMA expression and reduced hydroxyproline content in the liver, when compared with animals administered AdLacZ [33].
  • Two dpy-18 mutant strains were shown to have null alleles for phy-1 and to have a reduced hydroxyproline content in their exoskeleton collagens [34].
  • Collagen synthesis was impeded as well, with the wounds of MCP-1(-/-) mice containing significantly less hydroxyproline than those of control mice (25 +/- 3 versus 50 +/- 8 microg/wound at day 5, P < 0.0001) [35].
  • Hepatic granulomas in Stat6-deficient mice were composed of predominantly mononuclear cells with very sparse appearance of eosinophils, and their diminished size was accompanied by decreased amounts of liver hydroxyproline content as a measure of collagen deposition [36].
  • Vitamin D metabolites, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), PTH(1-84), osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and hydroxyproline and calcium excretion in 2 h fasting urine were measured [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of hydroxyproline


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  2. Increase in serum bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein with aging in women. Implications for the mechanism of age-related bone loss. Delmas, P.D., Stenner, D., Wahner, H.W., Mann, K.G., Riggs, B.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Liver collagen synthesis in murine schistosomiasis. Dunn, M.A., Rojkind, M., Warren, K.S., Hait, P.K., Rifas, L., Seifter, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Myocardial hydroxyproline and mechanical response to prolonged pressure loading followed by unloading in the cat. Williams, J.F., Mathew, B., Hern, D.L., Potter, R.D., Deiss, W.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Intratibial Moloney sarcoma virus-induced osteosarcoma in the rat: tumor incidence and pathologic evaluation. Olson, H.M., Capen, C.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of chronic alcohol intake on hepatic fibrosis and granulomas in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Orrego, H., Israel, Y., Crossley, I.R., Mahmoud, A.A., Peters, P.A., Varghese, G., Wanless, I.R. Hepatology (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Iminopeptiduria, skin ulcerations, and edema in a boy with prolidase deficiency. Sheffield, L.J., Schlesinger, P., Faull, K., Halpern, B.J., Schier, G.M., Cotton, R.G., Hammond, J., Danks, D.M. J. Pediatr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Whole-body and site-specific bone remodelling in patients with previous femoral fractures: relationships between reduced physical activity, reduced bone mass and increased bone resorption. Wand, J.S., Smith, T., Green, J.R., Hesp, R., Bradbeer, J.N., Reeve, J. Clin. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Rapid induction by fungal elicitor of the synthesis of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, a specific enzyme of lignin synthesis. Grand, C., Sarni, F., Lamb, C.J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Parathyroid hormone for the prevention of bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Finkelstein, J.S., Klibanski, A., Schaefer, E.H., Hornstein, M.D., Schiff, I., Neer, R.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Structural basis for the recognition of hydroxyproline in HIF-1 alpha by pVHL. Hon, W.C., Wilson, M.I., Harlos, K., Claridge, T.D., Schofield, C.J., Pugh, C.W., Maxwell, P.H., Ratcliffe, P.J., Stuart, D.I., Jones, E.Y. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Nonenzymatic hydroxylations of proline and lysine by reduced oxygen derivatives. Trelstad, R.L., Lawley, K.R., Holmes, L.B. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Specific expression of a novel cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein gene in lateral root initiation. Keller, B., Lamb, C.J. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Dynamics of collagen accumulation and polymorphism in murine Schistosoma japonicum. Olds, G.R., Griffin, A., Kresina, T.F. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of hepatic stimulator substance, herbal medicine, selenium/vitamin E, and ciprofloxacin on cirrhosis in the rat. Zhang, M., Song, G., Minuk, G.Y. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of new bone resorption markers in a randomized comparison of pamidronate or clodronate for hypercalcemia of malignancy. Vinholes, J., Guo, C.Y., Purohit, O.P., Eastell, R., Coleman, R.E. J. Clin. Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Enhanced acute lung damage in mice following administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. Kehrer, J.P., Klein-Szanto, A.J. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. The prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor HOE 077 prevents activation of Ito cells, reducing procollagen gene expression in rat liver fibrosis induced by choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet. Sakaida, I., Matsumura, Y., Kubota, M., Kayano, K., Takenaka, K., Okita, K. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. An evaluation of several biochemical markers for bone formation and resorption in a protocol utilizing cyclical parathyroid hormone and calcitonin therapy for osteoporosis. Hodsman, A.B., Fraher, L.J., Ostbye, T., Adachi, J.D., Steer, B.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Hydroxyproline and passive stiffness of pressure-induced hypertrophied kitten myocardium. Williams, J.F., Potter, R.D., Hern, D.L., Mathew, B., Deiss, W.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Treatment of osteoporosis of ageing with 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol. Lund, B., Hjorth, L., Kjaer, I., Reimann, I., Friis, T., Andersen, R.B., Sorensen, O.H. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Prevention of rat hepatic fibrosis by the protease inhibitor, camostat mesilate, via reduced generation of active TGF-beta. Okuno, M., Akita, K., Moriwaki, H., Kawada, N., Ikeda, K., Kaneda, K., Suzuki, Y., Kojima, S. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Chronic blockade of endothelin receptors in cirrhotic rats: hepatic and hemodynamic effects. Poo, J.L., Jiménez, W., María Muñoz, R., Bosch-Marcé, M., Bordas, N., Morales-Ruiz, M., Pérez, M., Deulofeu, R., Solé, M., Arroyo, V., Rodés, J. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of procollagen gene expression by retinoids. Inhibition of collagen production by retinoic acid accompanied by reduced type I procollagen messenger ribonucleic acid levels in human skin fibroblast cultures. Oikarinen, H., Oikarinen, A.I., Tan, E.M., Abergel, R.P., Meeker, C.A., Chu, M.L., Prockop, D.J., Uitto, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Degradation of human glomerular basement membrane by stimulated neutrophils. Activation of a metalloproteinase(s) by reactive oxygen metabolites. Shah, S.V., Baricos, W.H., Basci, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Direct stimulation of bone resorption by thyroid hormones. Mundy, G.R., Shapiro, J.L., Bandelin, J.G., Canalis, E.M., Raisz, L.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of SQ 14225, an inhibitor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme, on the granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs in mice. Weinstock, J.V., Ehrinpreis, M.N., Boros, D.L., Gee, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Relaxin induces an extracellular matrix-degrading phenotype in human lung fibroblasts in vitro and inhibits lung fibrosis in a murine model in vivo. Unemori, E.N., Pickford, L.B., Salles, A.L., Piercy, C.E., Grove, B.H., Erikson, M.E., Amento, E.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Isolation and characterization of two hydroxyproline-containing glycoproteins from normal animal lung lavage and lamellar bodies. Bhattacharyya, S.N., Passero, M.A., DiAugustine, R.P., Lynn, W.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Mast cell tryptase stimulates the synthesis of type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Cairns, J.A., Walls, A.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Spatial organization of the assembly pathways of glycoproteins and complex polysaccharides in the Golgi apparatus of plants. Moore, P.J., Swords, K.M., Lynch, M.A., Staehelin, L.A. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of low-dose continuous estrogen and progesterone therapy with calcium and vitamin D on bone in elderly women. A randomized, controlled trial. Recker, R.R., Davies, K.M., Dowd, R.M., Heaney, R.P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Smad7 prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis in rats. Dooley, S., Hamzavi, J., Breitkopf, K., Wiercinska, E., Said, H.M., Lorenzen, J., Ten Dijke, P., Gressner, A.M. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase is an essential procollagen-modifying enzyme required for exoskeleton formation and the maintenance of body shape in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Winter, A.D., Page, A.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Wound healing in MIP-1alpha(-/-) and MCP-1(-/-) mice. Low, Q.E., Drugea, I.A., Duffner, L.A., Quinn, D.G., Cook, D.N., Rollins, B.J., Kovacs, E.J., DiPietro, L.A. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Th2 cells are required for the Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced granulomatous response. Kaplan, M.H., Whitfield, J.R., Boros, D.L., Grusby, M.J. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Vitamin D status and sex hormone binding globulin: determinants of bone turnover and bone mineral density in elderly women. Ooms, M.E., Lips, P., Roos, J.C., van der Vijgh, W.J., Popp-Snijders, C., Bezemer, P.D., Bouter, L.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Gamma-interferon inhibits collagen synthesis in vivo in the mouse. Granstein, R.D., Murphy, G.F., Margolis, R.J., Byrne, M.H., Amento, E.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Characteristics of the newly derived human chondrosarcoma cell line OSHU-1: observations on osteoinduction. Hirano, H., Urist, M.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  40. Gallium nitrate for advanced Paget disease of bone: effectiveness and dose-response analysis. Warrell, R.P., Bosco, B., Weinerman, S., Levine, B., Lane, J., Bockman, R.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  41. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with mild primary hyperparathyroidism. A randomized, controlled trial. Grey, A.B., Stapleton, J.P., Evans, M.C., Tatnell, M.A., Reid, I.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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