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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Non-clastogenicity in mouse bone marrow of fructose/lysine and other sugar/amino acid browning products with in vitro genotoxicity.

Heated sugar/amino acid reaction mixtures, known to contain products that are clastogenic and/or mutagenic to cells in vitro, were evaluated for clastogenic activity in mouse bone marrow using the erythrocyte micronucleus assay. Heated (i.e. browned) fructose/lysine reaction mixtures were also evaluated in the Salmonella his-reversion assay and the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosomal aberration assay to confirm and extend previous in vitro observations. Significant mutagenicity of fructose/lysine mixtures was observed in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA2637, TA98 and TA102, with greater activity in mixtures heated at pH 10 than at pH 7. S-9 decreased the activity in strains TA100, TA2637 and TA98, but increased the activity in strain TA102. Both pH 7 and pH 10 reaction mixtures of the fructose/lysine browning reaction were highly clastogenic in CHO cells. Heated mixtures of fructose and lysine, and of glucose or ribose with lysine, histidine, tryptophan or cysteine, did not increase the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in mice when administered by the oral route. This indicates the absence of chromosomal aberrations in erythrocyte precursor cells, and indicates that the genotoxic components of the browned mixtures are not absorbed and distributed to bone marrow cells in amounts sufficient to induce micronuclei when given orally. Because sugar/amino acid browning reactions occur commonly in heated foods, it is important to evaluate further the in vivo genotoxicity of browning products in cell populations other than bone marrow.[1]


  1. Non-clastogenicity in mouse bone marrow of fructose/lysine and other sugar/amino acid browning products with in vitro genotoxicity. MacGregor, J.T., Tucker, J.D., Ziderman, I.I., Wehr, C.M., Wilson, R.E., Friedman, M. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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