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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toxicity of organophosphorus esters to laying hens after oral and dermal administration.

Fourteen organophosphorus esters (OPs) were evaluated for their potential to cause organophosphorus ester induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) when administered dermally and/or orally to white leghorn hens. The compounds were chlorpyrifos, DEF, dichlorvos, dimethoate, EPN, ethoprop, fenthion, isofenphos, leptophos, merphos, ronnel, tetrachlorvinphos, terbufos, and trichlorfon. DEF induced ataxia if given dermally or orally at over 21 mg/kg/day for up to 90 days. Hens treated with EPN developed irreversible ataxia after repeated exposure to as little as 1.3 mg/kg dermally or 5 mg/kg/day orally, while leptophos was neurotoxic at doses of 6-7 mg/kg/day dermally and 10 mg/kg/day orally. Multiple treatments of chlorpyrifos, terbufos, dichlorvos and dimethoate caused death after varying periods of increasing debility; although birds had difficulty walking, they did not display typical symptoms of OPIDN. Fenthion and isofenphos induced drastic weight loss in hens at low levels of treatment; Isofenphos treated hens developed OPIDN, but died soon afterwards. Dichlorvos given at greater than 6 mg/kg/day po or dermally at 1 mg/kg/day produced cholinergic symptoms and most hens died before the end of the treatment period. At lower levels, dichlorvos did not induce overt ataxia. None of the other compounds in this series induced consistent ataxia whether administered orally or dermally. Ethoprop, with an acute oral LD50 near 5 mg/kg and an acute dermal LD50 of approximately 3 mg/kg, was the most toxic compound tested and could not be fully evaluated for its potential to cause OPIDN.[1]


  1. Toxicity of organophosphorus esters to laying hens after oral and dermal administration. Francis, B.M., Metcalf, R.L., Hansen, L.G. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (1985) [Pubmed]
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