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Chemical Compound Review

Lebaycid     dimethoxy-(3-methyl-4- methylsulfanyl...

Synonyms: Lebayeid, Queletox, fenthion, Fenthione, Figuron, ...
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Disease relevance of Lebaycid

  • We identified mutations both in the Pto resistance locus and in a new locus designated Prf (for Pseudomonas resistance and fenthion sensitivity) [1].
  • Use of a gene expression system based on potato virus X to rapidly identify and characterize a tomato Pto homolog that controls fenthion sensitivity [2].
  • After transformation with the Fen gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, tomato plants that are normally insensitive to fenthion rapidly developed extensive necrotic lesions upon exposure to fenthion [3].
  • After 10 months exposure to Fenthion, cellular necrosis and gliosis intensified in the CA4 and CA3 regions and occasionally involved the CA2 [4].
  • One patient, who had taken fenthion, also had a significantly delayed peak and prolonged, 2-3 week, systemic toxicity [5].

High impact information on Lebaycid


Chemical compound and disease context of Lebaycid


Biological context of Lebaycid


Anatomical context of Lebaycid

  • Stereoselective sulfoxidation of fenthion and methiocarb by human liver, kidney, and microsomes was investigated [19].
  • Research note: ability of fenthion to increase gizzard erosion in broiler chicks [20].
  • Correlation studies between clinical signs and plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities are presented together with plasma fenthion levels and the anticholinesterase capacity of the patient's plasmas [21].
  • Ultrastructural studies on the effect of fenthion on pituitary (GTH cells) and testis of Glossogobius giuris. (HAM) during breeding phase [22].
  • Erythrocyte ChE activity showed a downward trend to 32% of normal activity measured 9 days following the last treatment of fenthion at 33 mg/kg [23].

Associations of Lebaycid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Lebaycid

  • FMO1 also metabolized the commonly used insecticide fenthion to its (+)-sulfoxide, with relatively high catalytic efficiency [24].
  • This dose of fenthion did not produce overt morphological changes in the retina or in the cortex, as observed with light microscopy, although an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity (GFAP IR) extending from the internal limiting membrane to the external limiting membrane of the retina was noted [14].
  • The F11 larval population exhibited high levels of cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos (29.6 times), fenitrothion (49.4 times), parathion (55.6 times), fenthion (76.8 times), and chlorpyrifos-methyl (253.8 times) [29].
  • The myopathy is not aggravated by a further decline in AChE activity in fenthion poisoning [30].
  • Inhibition of AChE by fenthion, which has ready access to central neurons on account of its lipid solubility, is postulated as the mechanism underlying the extrapyramidal manifestations [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lebaycid


  1. Tomato mutants altered in bacterial disease resistance provide evidence for a new locus controlling pathogen recognition. Salmeron, J.M., Barker, S.J., Carland, F.M., Mehta, A.Y., Staskawicz, B.J. Plant Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Use of a gene expression system based on potato virus X to rapidly identify and characterize a tomato Pto homolog that controls fenthion sensitivity. Rommens, C.M., Salmeron, J.M., Baulcombe, D.C., Staskawicz, B.J. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. A member of the tomato Pto gene family confers sensitivity to fenthion resulting in rapid cell death. Martin, G.B., Frary, A., Wu, T., Brommonschenkel, S., Chunwongse, J., Earle, E.D., Tanksley, S.D. Plant Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. The neurotoxicity of subchronic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in rat hippocampus. Veronesi, B., Jones, K., Pope, C. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Organophosphate poisoning: peripheral vascular resistance--a measure of adequate atropinization. Buckley, N.A., Dawson, A.H., Whyte, I.M. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Tomato Prf is a member of the leucine-rich repeat class of plant disease resistance genes and lies embedded within the Pto kinase gene cluster. Salmeron, J.M., Oldroyd, G.E., Rommens, C.M., Scofield, S.R., Kim, H.S., Lavelle, D.T., Dahlbeck, D., Staskawicz, B.J. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. The disease-resistance gene Pto and the fenthion-sensitivity gene fen encode closely related functional protein kinases. Loh, Y.T., Martin, G.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Antiandrogenic activity and metabolism of the organophosphorus pesticide fenthion and related compounds. Kitamura, S., Suzuki, T., Ohta, S., Fujimoto, N. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. In vitro cytotoxicity of fenthion and related metabolites in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Cova, D., Perego, R., Nebuloni, C., Fontana, G., Molinari, G.P. Chemosphere (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Kim, S.I., Na, Y.E., Yi, J.H., Kim, B.S., Ahn, Y.J. Vet. Parasitol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Toxicity of insecticides to Toxorhynchites splendens and three vector mosquitos and their sublethal effect on biocontrol potential of the predator. Amalraj, D.D., Das, P.K. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Vapor phase toxicity of plant essential oils to Cadra cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Sim, M.J., Choi, D.R., Ahn, Y.J. J. Econ. Entomol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of O, O-dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-methylthiophenyl) phosphorothioate (fenthion) pretreatment on acute toxicity of 2-sec-butylphenyl N-methylcarbamate (BPMC) in dogs. Miyaoka, T., Tsuda, S., Shirasu, Y. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Fenthion produces a persistent decrease in muscarinic receptor function in the adult rat retina. Tandon, P., Padilla, S., Barone, S., Pope, C.N., Tilson, H.A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetic characterization of the Pto locus of tomato: semi-dominance and cosegregation of resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato and sensitivity to the insecticide Fenthion. Carland, F.M., Staskawicz, B.J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential cytotoxic sensitivity in mouse and human cell lines exposed to organophosphate insecticides. Veronesi, B., Ehrich, M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Aqueous photodegradation of fenthion by ultraviolet B irradiation: contribution of singlet oxygen in photodegradation and photochemical hydrolysis. Hirahara, Y., Ueno, H., Nakamuro, K. Water Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Severe fenthion intoxications due to ingestion and inhalation with survival outcome. Tsatsakis, A.M., Bertsias, G.K., Liakou, V., Mammas, I.N., Stiakakis, I., Tzanakakis, G.N. Human & experimental toxicology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Extrahepatic metabolism of carbamate and organophosphate thioether compounds by the flavin-containing monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 systems. Furnes, B., Schlenk, D. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Research note: ability of fenthion to increase gizzard erosion in broiler chicks. Lavandero, S., Neira, M., López, C., Gallardo, R., Guerrero, E., Rutman, M. Poult. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Severe and prolonged poisoning by fenthion. Significance of the determination of the anticholinesterase capacity of plasma. Mahieu, P., Hassoun, A., Van Binst, R., Lauwerys, R., Deheneffe, Y. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Ultrastructural studies on the effect of fenthion on pituitary (GTH cells) and testis of Glossogobius giuris. (HAM) during breeding phase. Zutshi, B. Journal of environmental biology / Academy of Environmental Biology, India. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of topical fenthion on blood cholinesterase and vagal tone in dogs. Dellinger, J., Mostrom, M. Veterinary and human toxicology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of xenobiotic N- and S-oxidation by variant flavin-containing monooxygenase 1 (FMO1) enzymes. Furnes, B., Schlenk, D. Toxicol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Selective inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase relative to neuropathy target esterase and acetylcholinesterase: toxicological implications. Quistad, G.B., Sparks, S.E., Segall, Y., Nomura, D.K., Casida, J.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Ocular effects of organophosphates: a historical perspective of Saku disease. Dementi, B. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Worker exposure and a risk assessment of Malathion and Fenthion used in the control of Mediterranean fruit fly in South Australia. Edwards, J.W., Lee, S.G., Heath, L.M., Pisaniello, D.L. Environ. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Determination of insecticides in honey by matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection and mass spectrometric confirmation. Sánchez-Brunete, C., Albero, B., Miguel, E., Tadeo, J.L. Journal of AOAC International. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Changes in cross-resistance spectrum resulting from methyl parathion selection of Culex tarsalis Coq. Apperson, C.S., Georghiou, G.P. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Acute and subacute organophosphate poisoning in the rat. De Bleecker, J., Lison, D., Van Den Abeele, K., Willems, J., De Reuck, J. Neurotoxicology (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Extrapyramidal manifestations complicating organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. Senanayake, N., Sanmuganathan, P.S. Human & experimental toxicology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the organophosphorus insecticide fenthion. Influence of hapten structure. Brun, E.M., Garcés-García, M., Puchades, R., Maquieira, A. J. Immunol. Methods (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Fenthion suicide poisoning by subcutaneous injection. Serrano, N., Fedriani, J. Intensive care medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Residues of fenthion and trichloron in olives and olive oil after olive tree treatments. Cavanna, S., Molinari, G.P. Food additives and contaminants. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Analysis of fenthion in postmortem samples by HPLC with diode-array detection and GC-MS using solid-phase extraction. Meyer, E., Borrey, D., Lambert, W., Van Peteghem, C., Piette, M., De Leenheer, A. Journal of analytical toxicology. (1998) [Pubmed]
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