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Chemical Compound Review

Bilarcil     2,2,2-trichloro-1- dimethoxyphosphoryl-ethanol

Synonyms: Dipterex, Foschlor, Chlorofos, Neguvon, Ricifon, ...
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Disease relevance of Trichlorphon


Psychiatry related information on Trichlorphon


High impact information on Trichlorphon

  • At gastrula stage Sp88 transcripts are almost completely confined to the nucleus [Lev, Z., Thomas, T. L., Lee, A. S., Angerer, R. C., Britten, R. J. & Davidson, E. H. (1980) Dev. Biol, 75, in press] [11].
  • Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus [12].
  • We have also followed APP expression and metabolism after long-term treatment with metrifonate [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings from these studies of up to 26 weeks' duration do not clearly support an interaction between APOE genotype and metrifonate treatment effects [4].
  • The interaction of APOE genotype with the metrifonate effect on global function also was not significant (p = 0.70) [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of Trichlorphon


Biological context of Trichlorphon


Anatomical context of Trichlorphon


Associations of Trichlorphon with other chemical compounds

  • These data indicate that chronic metrifonate treatment may increase the extracellular acetylcholine level via cholinesterase inhibition, but it does not have any effects on the blood-brain barrier [22].
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated the memory-enhancing effects of the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil and AChE inhibitors metrifonate and donepezil in the object recognition task to find out whether acquisition or consolidation processes were affected by these drugs [26].
  • There were no statistically significant differences in primary pharmacokinetic parameters--Cmax, t(max), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and t1/2--of metrifonate and dichlorvos among the different groups [27].
  • Effect of subchronic treatment with metrifonate and tacrine on brain cholinergic function in aged F344 rats [28].
  • Also, the combination of nimodipine 3 or 10 mg/kg and a subthreshold dose of metrifonate 10 mg/kg could not suppress high-voltage spindles or scopolamine treatment-induced spectral EEG activity abnormalities [29].

Gene context of Trichlorphon


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Trichlorphon

  • A case-control study and environmental investigations pointed the finger of suspicion at the excessive use of trichlorfon at local fish farms [2].
  • Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging) [12].
  • The conditions (sensitive period and doses) for producing hypoplasia in guinea-pig offspring after treatment of pregnant guinea-pigs with the organophosphorous agent trichlorfon (metrifonate, 0,0-dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethylphosphonate) were examined [33].
  • We recorded from visually identified CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vitro using whole cell voltage-clamp technique to better isolate and characterize which component currents of the AHP are affected by metrifonate [34].
  • An indirect cholinesterase inhibitor, metrifonate, increases neocortical EEG arousal in rats [35].


  1. Scales modified for dose determination in population-based chemotherapy. Jack, A., Bradley, D. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Environmental trichlorfon and cluster of congenital abnormalities. Czeizel, A.E., Elek, C., Gundy, S., Métneki, J., Nemes, E., Reis, A., Sperling, K., Tímár, L., Tusnády, G., Virágh, Z. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Short- and long-term effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibition on the expression and metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein. Racchi, M., Sironi, M., Caprera, A., König, G., Govoni, S. Mol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Metrifonate treatment of AD: influence of APOE genotype. Farlow, M.R., Cyrus, P.A., Nadel, A., Lahiri, D.K., Brashear, A., Gulanski, B. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Intermittent chemotherapy with trichlorfon (metrifonate) reverses proteinuria, hematuria, and leukocyturia in urinary schistosomiasis: results of a three-year field study. Doehring, E., Feldmeier, H., Dafalla, A.A., Ehrich, J.H., Vester, U., Poggensee, U. J. Infect. Dis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Metrifonate for Alzheimer's disease: is the next cholinesterase inhibitor better? Sandson, T.A. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Koro: the genital retraction symptom after stroke. Anderson, D.N. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of long-term treatment with metrifonate, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on cholinergic activity, amyloid pathology, and cognitive function in APP and PS1 doubly transgenic mice. Liu, L., Ikonen, S., Heikkinen, T., Tapiola, T., van Groen, T., Tanila, H. Exp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Experimental study of the effect of a series of phosphoroorganic pesticides (Dipterex and Imidan) on embryogenesis. Martson, L.V., Voronina, V.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Subchronic treatment increases the duration of the cognitive enhancement induced by metrifonate. Riekkinen, M., Schmidt, B.H., Riekkinen, P. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Four sizes of transcript produced by a single sea urchin gene expressed in early embryos. Lee, A.S., Thomas, T.L., Lev, Z., Britten, R.J., Davidson, E.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. Oh, M.M., Power, J.M., Thompson, L.T., Moriearty, P.L., Disterhoft, J.F. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparison of donepezil-, tacrine-, rivastigmine- and metrifonate-induced central and peripheral cholinergically mediated responses in the rat. Dronfield, S., Egan, K., Marsden, C.A., Green, A.R. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Further trials of mebendazole and metrifonate in the treatment of onchocerciasis. Kale, O.O. Bull. World Health Organ. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of metrifonate in mixed Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections in humans. Doehring, E., Poggensee, U., Feldmeier, H. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Malumfashi Endemic Diseases Research Project, V. Concurrent single dose metrifonate and niridazole in urinary schistosomiasis. Pugh, R.N. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. The chemotherapy of onchocerciasis iii. A comparative study of diethylcarbamazide (DEC) and metrifonate. Awadzi, K., Gilles, H.M. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. The contributions of excitotoxicity, glutathione depletion and DNA repair in chemically induced injury to neurones: exemplified with toxic effects on cerebellar granule cells. Fonnum, F., Lock, E.A. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Quantification of infection with Schistosoma haematobium in relation to epidemiology and selective population chemotherapy. II. Mass treatment with a single oral dose of metrifonate. Siongok, T.K., Ouma, J.H., Houser, H.B., Warren, K.S. J. Infect. Dis. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Developmental toxicity in the rat after ingestion or gavage of organophosphate pesticides (Dipterex, Imidan) during pregnancy. Staples, R.E., Kellam, R.G., Haseman, J.K. Environ. Health Perspect. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Trichlorfon exposure, spindle aberrations and nondisjunction in mammalian oocytes. Yin, H., Cukurcam, S., Betzendahl, I., Adler, I.D., Eichenlaub-Ritter, U. Chromosoma (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of chronic metrifonate treatment on cholinergic enzymes and the blood-brain barrier. Rakonczay, Z., Papp, H. Neurochem. Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Metrifonate improves associative learning and retention in aging rabbits. Kronforst-Collins, M.A., Moriearty, P.L., Schmidt, B., Disterhoft, J.F. Behav. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Sustained effect of metrifonate on cerebral glucose metabolism after immunolesion of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats. Bassant, M.H., Poindessous-Jazat, F., Schmidt, B.H. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. A study of the aneugenic activity of trichlorfon detected by centromere-specific probes in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Doherty, A.T., Ellard, S., Parry, E.M., Parry, J.M. Mutat. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Dissociable effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on object recognition memory: acquisition versus consolidation. Prickaerts, J., Sik, A., van der Staay, F.J., de Vente, J., Blokland, A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor metrifonate in patients with renal impairment. Dingemanse, J., Halabi, A., Kleinbloesem, C.H., Heinig, R., Blume, H. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of subchronic treatment with metrifonate and tacrine on brain cholinergic function in aged F344 rats. Giovannini, M.G., Scali, C., Bartolini, L., Schmidt, B., Pepeu, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of combined nimodipine and metrifonate on rat cognition and cortical EEG. Jäkälä, P., Riekkinen, M., Björklund, M., Koivisto, E., Schmidt, B., Riekkinen, P. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Changes in neuronal acetylcholinesterase gene expression and division of labor in honey bee colonies. Shapira, M., Thompson, C.K., Soreq, H., Robinson, G.E. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Cholinesterase inhibitors proposed for treating dementia in Alzheimer's disease: selectivity toward human brain acetylcholinesterase compared with butyrylcholinesterase. Pacheco, G., Palacios-Esquivel, R., Moss, D.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of food and time of administration on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of metrifonate. Heinig, R., Sachse, R. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Teratogenic effects of trichlorfon (Metrifonate) on the guinea-pig brain. Determination of the effective dose and the sensitive period. Hjelde, T., Mehl, A., Schanke, T.M., Fonnum, F. Neurochem. Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Metrifonate decreases sI(AHP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro. Power, J.M., Oh, M.M., Disterhoft, J.F. J. Neurophysiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. An indirect cholinesterase inhibitor, metrifonate, increases neocortical EEG arousal in rats. Björklund, M., Jäkälä, P., Schmidt, B., Riekkinen, M., Koivisto, E., Riekkinen, P. Neuroreport (1996) [Pubmed]
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