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Chemical Compound Review

Oftanol     propan-2-yl 2-[ethoxy-(propan-2...

Synonyms: Discus, ISOFENPHOS, Pyrfon, Amaze, Isophenphos, ...
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Disease relevance of Pyrfon

  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the AIM and the DISCUS in the identification of dyskinesia [1].
  • Late progressive polyneuropathy followed by pyramidal findings in a 20 year old agricultural labourer who ingested Isofenphos solution during his work, is presented [2].
  • Vibrio halioticoli sp. nov., a non-motile alginolytic marine bacterium isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus hannai [3].
  • The Vmax and Km values obtained in this study for animal and human liver P-450 enzymes will be used to develop a PB-PK/PB-PD model to predict the fate and toxicity of isofenphos in animals and man [4].
  • All published articles on the acute management of sport-related brain injury were extracted using searches of computerised databases (Medline, Embase, Sport Discus) as well as detailed literature reviews based upon the published bibliographies in this area [5].

Psychiatry related information on Pyrfon

  • Reliability of DISCUS rating in individuals with learning disabilities [6].
  • In this review we discus the ideas, models, and mathematical image of sequence generation and reshaping on different levels of the neural hierarchy, i.e., the role of a sensory network dynamics in the generation of a motor program (hunting swimming of marine mollusk Clione), olfactory dynamical coding, and sequential learning and decision making [7].
  • The results of the searches (4,130 hits) support the use of Sport Discus (n= 2,442 hits) as the most productive database for searches on adapted physical activity pedagogy [8].
  • Based upon this study and a larger study of 4,649 individuals with developmental disability, we recommend that clinicians carefully evaluate for tardive dyskinesia any individuals with developmental disability who have been prescribed antipsychotics for greater than 3 months and who score 6 or above on the DISCUS [9].
  • The lip movements associated with dyskinesia in adults with mental retardation were investigated through a dynamic analysis at medication baseline, at the points of the highest level of withdrawal dyskinesia as indexed by the DISCUS rating scale, and at the lowest level of dyskinesia following complete withdrawal of the medication [10].

High impact information on Pyrfon

  • A silver 4-tert-butylthiophenolate complex generated in situ reacted with CS2 in acetone to give an anionic cluster [Ag50S7(SC6H4But-4)40]4-, the core of which consists of fifty silver atoms and forty-seven sulfur atoms, shaped like a discus with a diameter of ca. 2.0 nm [11].
  • By proestrus, only the cells of the discus proligerus (cumulus and the portion of the follicular wall supporting the cumulus oocyte complex) continued to incorporate 3H-TdR [12].
  • Acid-soluble collagens were prepared from connective tissues in the abalone Haliotis discus foot and adductor muscles with limited proteolysis using pepsin [13].
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: In order to identify relevant studies, electronic databases--Medline, Embase, CAB abstracts, Psyclit and Sport Discus-were searched from the start date of the database to Spring 1998 [14].
  • Three-dimensional kinematics of the discus and upper body segments at the instant of release and the range of motion and average angular speed of different segments during the final forward swing were determined [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pyrfon


Biological context of Pyrfon

  • The most frequent differences within either the male or female Junior Olympic samples involved the performers in throwing events (shot put, discus, and javelin), who were taller, heavier, fatter, and of unique somatotype when compared to all or most other competitors [19].
  • Fourteen subjects, including 4 strength-trained (discus and shot put), 4 endurance-trained (long distance runners), 4 decathlon-trained (strength and endurance), 2 wheelchair athletes and 31 college-age control subjects were evaluated using electrocardiography, M-mode echocardiography and maximal oxygen consumption [20].
  • The Vmax values for the dealkylation process (conversion of IFP to d-N-IFP) were 64.6, 17.2, 9.7, and 7.3 nmol isofenphos hr-1 per 1.3 nanomoles P-450 for the monkey, rat, dog, and human, respectively [4].
  • We present novel microsatellite markers of the Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) for general mapping studies in this species [21].
  • A preliminary genetic linkage map of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino [22].

Anatomical context of Pyrfon

  • In order to examined a diurnal (24 h) rhythm in the fine structure of photoreceptors of abalone, Nordotis discus, the animals were kept on a daily light-dark cycle (light period: 6:00 a.m.--6:00 p.m., 2--5 lx) for 10 days; subsequently their eyes were fixed at nine specified times of the day [23].
  • Two proteins of molecular weights 20,000 (20K) and 15,500 (15.5K) are the major soluble substances released from the acrosomal vesicle of the abalone, Haliotis discus, spermatozoon [24].
  • The Iowa Pleistocene snail, Discus macclintocki, is an endangered species that survives only in relictual populations on algific (cold-air) talus slopes in northeast Iowa and northwest Illinois in the central region of the USA [25].
  • In order to study the synthesis and degradation processes of the photoreceptor membranes in the abalone, Nordotis discus, the localization of acyltransferase and acid hydrolase activities, respectively, were determined at the electron-microscopic level [26].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the sternoclavicular joint, its discus and its variations.Design [27].

Associations of Pyrfon with other chemical compounds

  • An alginate lyase, termed HdAly in the present paper, was isolated from the hepatopancreas of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by TOYOPEARL CM-650M column chromatography [28].
  • An endo-beta-1,4-mannanase was isolated from digestive fluid of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, by successive chromatographies on TOYPEARL CM-650M, hydroxyapatite, and TOYOPEARL HW50F [29].
  • However, the AChE reactivator pyridine-2-aldoxime (2-PAM) was given to hens before isofenphos and then every 8 h, whereas continuous 2-PAM infusion was provided to the patient [30].
  • OPs possessing carboxylesters, such as malathion and isofenphos, are hydrolyzed by the direct action of 'B'-esterases (i.e., carboxylesterase, CaE) [31].
  • The imbalanced metabolic phenotype with a severe defect in glucose oxidation, lipid and amino acid synthesis concurrent with de novo synthesis of nucleic acids in response to isofenphos treatment conforms to the invasive proliferating phenotype observed in TGF-beta treated lung epithelial carcinoma cells [32].

Gene context of Pyrfon

  • Development of in vitro Vmax and Km values for the metabolism of isofenphos by P-450 liver enzymes in animals and human [4].
  • The Km values for the desulfuration of isofenphos were 19.2, 7.4, 14.1, 23.3, and 18.4 microM, respectively, for the monkey, guinea pig, rat, dog, and human [4].
  • Both the recently identified neuropathic OP isofenphos (IFP) and its oxon required activation to inhibit NTE (inhibitions of 20 and 80%, respectively) [33].
  • Results showed that phoxim (22.5 mg/kg p.o.) was not a promoter of OPIDP in hens and that the ratio AChE inhibition:NTE inhibition by microsome-activated isofenphos was similar for both hen and human enzymes [30].
  • Opalescence 10% PF (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA) was used by 23 patients for 14 days, whereas Nite White Excel (Discus Dental, Culver City, CA, USA) was applied by 25 patients for the same duration [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pyrfon


  1. Clinical rating scales and instruments: how do they compare in assessing abnormal, involuntary movements? Dean, C.E., Russell, J.M., Kuskowski, M.A., Caligiuri, M.P., Nugent, S.M. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Late onset isofenphos neurotoxicity. Catz, A., Chen, B., Jutrin, I., Mendelson, L. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Vibrio halioticoli sp. nov., a non-motile alginolytic marine bacterium isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Sawabe, T., Sugimura, I., Ohtsuka, M., Nakano, K., Tajima, K., Ezura, Y., Christen, R. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Development of in vitro Vmax and Km values for the metabolism of isofenphos by P-450 liver enzymes in animals and human. Knaak, J.B., al-Bayati, M.A., Raabe, O.G., Blancato, J.N. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Were you knocked out? A team physician's approach to initial concussion management. McCrory, P.R. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Reliability of DISCUS rating in individuals with learning disabilities. Collacott, R., Bhaumik, S., Branford, D. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Generation and reshaping of sequences in neural systems. Rabinovich, M.I., Huerta, R., Varona, P., Afraimovich, V.S. Biological cybernetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Information retrieval and pedagogy in adapted physical activity. O'Connor, J., Sherrill, C., French, R. Perceptual and motor skills. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Psychometric properties of the Dyskinesia Identification System: Condensed User Scale (DISCUS). Sprague, R.L., Kalachnik, J.E., Slaw, K.M., Shaw, K.M. Mental retardation. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Dynamics of lip dyskinesia associated with neuroleptic withdrawal. Newell, K.M., Bodfish, J.W., Mahorney, S.L., Sprague, R.L. American journal of mental retardation : AJMR. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel pentaconta-nuclear silver anionic cluster complex [HNEt3]4[Ag50S7(SC6H4But-4)40].2CS(2).6C3H6O. Tang, K., Xie, X., Zhang, Y., Zhao, X., Jin, X. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Patterns of [3H] thymidine incorporation differ in immature rats and mature, cycling rats. Hirshfield, A.N. Biol. Reprod. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The occurrence of two types of collagen proalpha-chain in the abalone Haliotis discus muscle. Yoneda, C., Hirayama, Y., Nakaya, M., Matsubara, Y., Irie, S., Hatae, K., Watabe, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Childhood predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review. Parsons, T.J., Power, C., Logan, S., Summerbell, C.D. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athletes. Chow, J.W., Mindock, L.A. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Short-term assay for the identification of neurotoxic compounds and their liver derived stable metabolites. Bruinink, A., Yu, D., Maier, P. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Toxicity of organophosphorus esters to laying hens after oral and dermal administration. Francis, B.M., Metcalf, R.L., Hansen, L.G. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Biochemical targets of nitric oxide-induced toxicity. Grudziński, I.P. Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Body composition and somatotype characteristics of junior Olympic athletes. Thorland, W.G., Johnson, G.O., Fagot, T.G., Tharp, G.D., Hammer, R.W. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Noninvasive evaluation of world class athletes engaged in different modes of training. Fisher, A.G., Adams, T.D., Yanowitz, F.G., Ridges, J.D., Orsmond, G., Nelson, A.G. Am. J. Cardiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Segregation and Linkage Analysis of 75 Novel Microsatellite DNA Markers in Pair Crosses of Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Using the 5'-Tailed Primer Method. Sekino, M., Kobayashi, T., Hara, M. Mar. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. A preliminary genetic linkage map of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Liu, X., Liu, X., Guo, X., Gao, Q., Zhao, H., Zhang, G. Mar. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Diurnal changes in the fine structure of photoreceptors in an abalone, Nordotis discus. Kataoka, S., Yamamoto, T.Y. Cell Tissue Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Two major acrosomal proteins act on different parts of the oocyte vitelline coat in the abalone, Haliotis discus. Usui, N., Haino-Fukushima, K. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Iowa pleistocene snail. Ross, T.K. Mol. Ecol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Acyltransferase and acid hydrolase activities of the abalone photoreceptor cell. Kataoka, S., Yamamoto, T.Y. Cell Tissue Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. The sternoclavicular joint: variants of the discus articularis. Barbaix, E., Lapierre, M., Van Roy, P., Clarijs, J.P. Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. cDNA cloning of an alginate lyase from abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Shimizu, E., Ojima, T., Nishita, K. Carbohydr. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Isolation and cloning of an endo-beta-1,4-mannanase from Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Ootsuka, S., Saga, N., Suzuki, K., Inoue, A., Ojima, T. J. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. The relationship between isofenphos cholinergic toxicity and the development of polyneuropathy in hens and humans. Moretto, A., Lotti, M. Arch. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Blood cholinesterases as human biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Nigg, H.N., Knaak, J.B. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Isofenphos induced metabolic changes in K562 myeloid blast cells. Boros, L.G., Williams, R.D. Leuk. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Isofenphos and an in vitro activation assay for delayed neuropathic potential. Chow, E., Seiber, J.N., Wilson, B.W. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Comparison of effectiveness of two 10% carbamide peroxide tooth-bleaching systems using spectrophotometric measurements. Ishikawa-Nagai, S., Terui, T., Ishibashi, K., Weber, H.P., Ferguson, M. Journal of esthetic and restorative dentistry : official publication of the American Academy of Esthetic Dentistry ... [et al.] (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Isofenphos poisoning: prolonged intoxication after intramuscular injection. Zoppellari, R., Borron, S.W., Chieregato, A., Targa, L., Scaroni, I., Zatelli, R. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Segregation of microsatellite alleles in gynogenetic diploid Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). Li, Q., Kijima, A. Mar. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Retrospective clinical study of Osseotite implants: zero- to 5-year results. Garlini, G., Bianchi, C., Chierichetti, V., Sigurtà, D., Maiorana, C., Santoro, F. The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants. (2003) [Pubmed]
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