The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Enkephalin effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreceptor reflex.

The cardiovascular effects of opioid peptides have been studied. Leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK) produced blood pressure (BP) increases following administration into the lateral brain ventricles (i.v.t.), into the cisterna magna (i.c.i.), and following intravenous (i.v.) administration. Heart rate (HR) increases were observed following all routes of administration (threshold for BP and HR effects at 0.3 nmole, maximum at 360 nmoles). The cardiovascular effects were independent of generalized seizures, which may occur at higher doses of enkephalins (ENK). D-alanine-enkephalin (D-Ala-ENK) attenuated the vagal component of the baroreceptor reflex in cats. This was indicated by the findings that HR did not decrease following D-Ala-ENK-induced BP increases and that the compensatory decreases in HR following i.v. pressor doses of angiotensin II (ANG II) were markedly attenuated in cats treated with i.v.t. D-Ala-ENK. Naloxone inhibited the BP and HR effects following i.c.i. and i.v., but not following i.v.t., administration of Leu-ENK. The i.v.t. Leu-ENK effect were inhibited by beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. Bratteboro rats homozygous for hereditary diabetes insipidus with total absence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) synthesis responded with BP decreases following i.v.t. Leu-ENK, while BP increases were observed in control Long-Evans rats. Blood pressure increases to i.v.t. Leu-ENK were markedly greater in spontaneously hypertensive rats of the stroke-prone strain (SHR-sp) than in normotensive control rats; SHR-sp exhibit a humoral pattern of increased ADH, ACTH, and catecholamines, presumably due to central peptidergic stimulation. The known effects of opioid peptides on these hormones and the observed cardiovascular responses suggest a possible participation of this peptide system in the maintenance of high BP in the SHR-sp.[1]


  1. Enkephalin effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreceptor reflex. Schaz, K., Stock, G., Simon, W., Schlör, K.H., Unger, T., Rockhold, R., Ganten, D. Hypertension (1980) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities