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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Intraoperative and postoperative effects of vancomycin administration in cardiac surgery patients: a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial.

OBJECTIVES: In response to an increased frequency of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections in postoperative cardiac surgery patients, antibiotic prophylaxis was changed to include both vancomycin and cefazolin pre- and intraoperatively. Subsequent to the addition of vancomycin prophylaxis, clinical impression and retrospective analysis supported a correlation between vancomycin administration and post-cardiopulmonary bypass norepinephrine use. DESIGN: A prospective, double-blind, randomized study. SETTING: Tertiary care center in a university hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 58 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery under high-dose fentanyl anesthesia. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to receive cefazolin and either vancomycin or normal saline pre-, intra-, and postoperatively in a double-blinded protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hemodynamic profiles and doses of administered vasoactive agents were calculated and recorded for all patients for both intra- and postoperative time periods. Hypotension consistent with vasodilation was treated with a norepinephrine infusion. The rate and frequency of norepinephrine infusions were tabulated for both groups. Hemodynamic profiles that were obtained after the administration of the initial dose of vancomycin or normal saline and before the induction of general anesthesia and those profiles obtained after the induction of general anesthesia until the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass showed no difference between groups and no evidence of vasodilation secondary to vancomycin administration. However, subsequent doses of vancomycin in the intra- and postoperative periods were associated with a significantly greater frequency of norepinephrine infusions to maintain normal hemodynamic indices. In the vancomycin group, 50% of patients received a norepinephrine infusion in the intra- and/or postoperative period as compared with 14% in the normal saline group (p < .01). Furthermore, the group of patients who received vancomycin and subsequently required a norepinephrine infusion had significantly lower mean systolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance as compared with all other groups. There were no differences between groups in the use of vasopressors (other than norepinephrine) or fluid balance. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that a significantly greater number of patients who received vancomycin required a norepinephrine infusion and that, despite norepinephrine infusion therapy, systemic vascular resistance was not normalized in this group of patients. The study supports the conclusion that perioperative administration of vancomycin in cardiac surgery patients may result in hypotension requiring the use of a vasopressor in an attempt to normalize hemodynamic indices.[1]


  1. Intraoperative and postoperative effects of vancomycin administration in cardiac surgery patients: a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial. Romanelli, V.A., Howie, M.B., Myerowitz, P.D., Zvara, D.A., Rezaei, A., Jackman, D.L., Sinclair, D.S., McSweeney, T.D. Crit. Care Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
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