The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cytochemical evidence for redistribution of membrane pump calcium-ATPase and ecto-Ca-ATPase activity, and calcium influx in myelinated nerve fibres of the optic nerve after stretch injury.

There has been controversy for some time as to whether a posttraumatic influx of calcium ions occurs in stretch/nondisruptively injured axons within the central nervous system in both human diffuse axonal injury and a variety of models of such injury. We have used the oxalate/pyroantimonate technique to provide cytochemical evidence in support of such an ionic influx after focal axonal injury to normoxic guinea pig optic nerve axons, a model for human diffuse axonal injury. We present evidence for morphological changes within 15 min of injury where aggregates of pyroantimonate precipitate occur in nodal blebs at nodes of Ranvier, in focal swellings within axonal mitochondria, and at localized sites of separation of myelin lamellae. In parallel with these studies, we have used cytochemical techniques for localization of membrane pump Ca(2+)-ATPase and ecto-Ca-ATPase activity. There is loss of labelling for membrane pump Ca(2+)-ATPase activity on the nodal axolemma, together with loss of ecto-Ca-ATPase from the external aspect of the myelin sheath at sites of focal separation of myelin lamellae. Disruption of myelin lamellae and loss of ecto-Ca-ATPase activity becomes widespread between 1 and 4 h after injury. This is correlated with both infolding and retraction of the axolemma from the internal aspect of the myelin sheath to form periaxonal spaces which are characterized by aggregates of pyroantimonate precipitate, and the development of myelin intrusions into invaginations of the axolemma such that the regular profile of the axon is lost. There is novel labelling of membrane pump Ca(2+)-ATPase on the cytoplasmic aspect of the internodal axolemma between 1 and 4 h after injury. There is loss of an organized axonal cytoskeleton in a proportion of nerve fibres by 4-6 h after injury. We suggest that these changes demonstrate a progressive pathology linked to calcium ion influx after stretch (non-disruptive) axonal injury to optic nerve myelinated fibres. We posit that calcium influx, linked to or correlated with changes in Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, results in dissolution of the axonal cytoskeleton and axotomy between 4 and 6 h after the initial insult to axons.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities