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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hepatotoxicity of diisopropyl ester of malonic acid and chloromalonic acids, disinfection by-products of the fungicide isoprothiolane.

The fungicide isoprothiolane (diisopropyl 1,3-dithiolane-2-ylidenemalonate) decomposes to the diisopropyl esters of malonic acid (DM), chloromalonic acid (DCM) and dichloromalonic acid (DDCM) upon aqueous chlorination. In this study, the cytotoxicity of these compounds was examined using rat hepatocytes cultured on Matrigel. DCM and DDCM caused hepatocellular death at concentrations > 0.5 mM, while DM had no effect on the cell viability even at the maximum concentration examined (4 mM). Significant lipid peroxidation, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was observed in both DCM- and DDCM-treated hepatocyte cultures, and was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with 0.1 mM bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate ( BNPP), a carboxylesterase inhibitor. When both BNPP and SKF-525A, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, were present in the medium, DCM-induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation were significantly suppressed compared to cultures with BNPP-treatment alone. By contrast, the DDCM-induced cytotoxicity was not affected by the combined pretreatment of SKF-525A and BNPP. These results indicate that DCM is metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 in an ester form, while DDCM is activated by a mechanism other than one involving cytochrome P450. To further elucidate the cytochrome P450 isozyme involved in the metabolic activation of DCM, microsomal lipid peroxidation was studied in vitro using microsomes from rats treated with beta-naphthoflavone, musk xylene, phenobarbital, pyrazole, or dexamethasone. Among these preparations, the microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats showed the most extensive lipid peroxidation in the presence of DCM, and the lipid peroxidation was enhanced by BNPP as observed in hepatocyte cultures. These findings suggest the possible involvement of cytochrome P450 3A in the metabolic activation of DCM.[1]


  1. Hepatotoxicity of diisopropyl ester of malonic acid and chloromalonic acids, disinfection by-products of the fungicide isoprothiolane. Jinno, H., Hanioka, N., Nishikawa, S., Yoda, R., Toyo'oka, T., Nishimura, T., Ando, M. Arch. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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