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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Disinfection


Psychiatry related information on Disinfection


High impact information on Disinfection

  • The outbreak terminated after the implementation of two major control measures: (1) replacement of hexachlorophene solution with an iodophor solution for preparing patients and cleaning instruments before disinfection, and (2) weekly gas sterilization of cystoscopy instruments [7].
  • In 12 nonpregnant women, total iodine, protein-bound iodine, inorganic iodine, and thyroxine values were measured in serum before and 15, 30, 45 or 60 minutes after a two-minute vaginal disinfection with povidone-iodine (Betadine) [8].
  • Vaginal chlorhexidine disinfection during labour [9].
  • We conclude that use of 2% chlorhexidine, rather than 10% povidone-iodine or 70% alcohol, for cutaneous disinfection before insertion of an intravascular device and for post-insertion site care can substantially reduce the incidence of device-related infection [10].
  • These dangers can be eliminated by careful disinfection with glutaraldehyde, other aldehyde disinfectants, or povidone-iodine [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Disinfection


Biological context of Disinfection


Anatomical context of Disinfection


Associations of Disinfection with chemical compounds


Gene context of Disinfection

  • The long survival of these bacteria, including MRSA and VRE, on commonly used hospital fabrics, such as scrub suits, lab coats, and hospital privacy drapes, underscores the need for meticulous contact control procedures and careful disinfection to limit the spread of these bacteria [32].
  • The carcinogenic response of Tsc2 mutant Long-Evans (Eker) rats to a mixture of drinking water disinfection by-products was less than additive [33].
  • Therefore in 2001 the German Society of Hospital Hygiene (DGKH) specified its requirements and recommendations for determining cleaning efficacy separately from those for disinfection [34].
  • On alginate gel beads, all strains were equally resistant to monochloramine. rpoS- and algT- gel bead biofilms of 24-hour-old were more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide disinfection than were biofilms formed by PAO1 [35].
  • Chlorite, a by-product of chlorine dioxide disinfection of water, produced decreases in GSH and G6PD activity, while increasing methemoglobin levels markedly over red cells with normal G6PD activity [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Disinfection


  1. Resistance of microorganisms to disinfection in dental and medical devices. Lewis, D.L., Arens, M. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by disinfection of the skin. Rengelshausen, J., Nürnberger, J., Philipp, T., Kribben, A. Am. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Efficacy of various disinfectants in killing a resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by comparing zones of inhibition: implications for endoscopic equipment reprocessing. Kovacs, B.J., Aprecio, R.M., Kettering, J.D., Chen, Y.K. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Glutathione transferase theta 1-1-dependent metabolism of the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane. Ross, M.K., Pegram, R.A. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunological and biophysical alteration of hepatitis B virus antigens by sodium hypochlorite disinfection. Sehulster, L.M., Hollinger, F.B., Dreesman, G.R., Melnick, J.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to rigid gas-permeable contact lenses. Miller, M.J., Wilson, L.A., Ahearn, D.G. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infections. Strand, C.L., Bryant, J.K., Morgan, J.W., Foster, J.G., McDonald, H.P., Morganstern, S.L. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Vaginal absorption of povidone-iodine. Vorherr, H., Vorherr, U.F., Mehta, P., Ulrich, J.A., Messer, R.H. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Vaginal chlorhexidine disinfection during labour. Feldman, R., van Oppen, C., Noorduyn, A. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Prospective randomised trial of povidone-iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine for prevention of infection associated with central venous and arterial catheters. Maki, D.G., Ringer, M., Alvarado, C.J. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Disinfection in upper-digestive-tract endoscopy in Britain. Axon, A.T., Banks, J., Cockel, R., Deverill, C.E., Newmann, C. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Experiments on terminal disinfection by formaldehyde vapor in the case of smallpox. Grossgebauer, K., Spicher, G., Peters, J., Kuwert, E., Pohle, H.D., Kerner, H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Evaluation of disinfection and sterilization of reusable angioscopes with the duck hepatitis B model. Chaufour, X., Deva, A.K., Vickery, K., Zou, J., Kumaradeva, P., White, G.H., Cossart, Y.E. J. Vasc. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Colonization of broiler chickens by waterborne Campylobacter jejuni. Pearson, A.D., Greenwood, M., Healing, T.D., Rollins, D., Shahamat, M., Donaldson, J., Colwell, R.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Syntheses and antibacterial activity of new N-halamine compounds. Barnela, S.B., Worley, S.D., Williams, D.E. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the use of chlorhexidine detergent in preoperative whole-body disinfection in wound infection prophylaxis. Lynch, W., Davey, P.G., Malek, M., Byrne, D.J., Napier, A. J. Hosp. Infect. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Is free halogen necessary for disinfection? Williams, D.E., Elder, E.D., Worley, S.D. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Transformation of the antibacterial agent sulfamethoxazole in reactions with chlorine: kinetics, mechanisms, and pathways. Dodd, M.C., Huang, C.H. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Practical limitations of disinfection of body fluid spills with 10,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Chitnis, V., Chitnis, S., Patil, S., Chitnis, D. American journal of infection control. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by inhaled bromodichloromethane in wild-type and p53-heterozygous mice. Torti, V.R., Cobb, A.J., Everitt, J.I., Marshall, M.W., Boorman, G.A., Butterworth, B.E. Toxicol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Bromochloroacetic acid exerts qualitative effects on rat sperm: implications for a novel biomarker. Klinefelter, G.R., Strader, L.F., Suarez, J.D., Roberts, N.L. Toxicol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Vaginal disinfection with povidon iodine and the outcome of in-vitro fertilization. van Os, H.C., Roozenburg, B.J., Janssen-Caspers, H.A., Leerentveld, R.A., Scholtes, M.C., Zeilmaker, G.H., Alberda, A.T. Hum. Reprod. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Hydrogen peroxide damage to human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Implications for contact lens disinfection systems. Tripathi, B.J., Tripathi, R.C. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Transcutaneous iodine absorption in adult patients with thyroid cancer disinfected with povidone-iodine at operation. Tomoda, C., Kitano, H., Uruno, T., Takamura, Y., Ito, Y., Miya, A., Kobayashi, K., Matsuzuka, F., Amino, N., Kuma, K., Miyauchi, A. Thyroid (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of human peripheral blood neutrophil respiratory burst by alcohol-based venipuncture site disinfection. Reinisch, N., Wiedermann, C.J., Ricevuti, G. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Retention of limulus amoebocyte lysate reactive bacterial products by polysulfone dialyzers is affected by the type of disinfectant. Cappelli, G., Inguaggiato, P., Perrone, S., Gervasio, R., Tetta, C., Scialoia, M.G., Albertazzi, A. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Serratia marcescens bacteremia from contaminated pressure transducers. Donowitz, L.G., Marsik, F.J., Hoyt, J.W., Wenzel, R.P. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia after biliary endoscopy: an outbreak investigation using DNA macrorestriction analysis. Struelens, M.J., Rost, F., Deplano, A., Maas, A., Schwam, V., Serruys, E., Cremer, M. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Defatting catheter insertion sites in total parenteral nutrition is of no value as an infection control measure. Controlled clinical trial. Maki, D.G., McCormack, K.N. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4b outbreak associated with bean sprouts. van Duynhoven, Y.T., Widdowson, M.A., de Jager, C.M., Fernandes, T., Neppelenbroek, S., van den Brandhof, W., Wannet, W.J., van Kooij, J.A., Rietveld, H.J., van Pelt, W. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Isotope dilution analysis of bromate in drinking water matrixes by ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection. Creed, J.T., Brockhoff, C.A. Anal. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Survival of enterococci and staphylococci on hospital fabrics and plastic. Neely, A.N., Maley, M.P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. The carcinogenic response of Tsc2 mutant Long-Evans (Eker) rats to a mixture of drinking water disinfection by-products was less than additive. Hooth, M.J., McDorman, K.S., Hester, S.D., George, M.H., Brooks, L.R., Swank, A.E., Wolf, D.C. Toxicol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. The importance of cleaning for the overall results of processing endoscopes. Martiny, H., Floss, H., Zühlsdorf, B. J. Hosp. Infect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Role of RpoS and AlgT in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm resistance to hydrogen peroxide and monochloramine. Cochran, W.L., Suh, S.J., McFeters, G.A., Stewart, P.S. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. G6PD-deficiency: a potential high-risk group to copper and chlorite ingestion. Moore, G.S., Calabrese, E.J. Journal of environmental pathology and toxicology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  37. Cleaning and disinfection of fiberoptic endoscopes: evaluation of glutaraldehyde exposure time and forced-air drying. Gerding, D.N., Peterson, L.R., Vennes, J.A. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  38. Gloved hand as applicator of antiseptic to operation sites. Lowbury, E.J., Lilly, H.A. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  39. A randomized trial of povidone-iodine compared with iodine tincture for venipuncture site disinfection: effects on rates of blood culture contamination. Little, J.R., Murray, P.R., Traynor, P.S., Spitznagel, E. Am. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Bronchopulmonary cross-colonization and infection related to mycobacterial contamination of suction valves of bronchoscopes. Wheeler, P.W., Lancaster, D., Kaiser, A.B. J. Infect. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Effectiveness of manual cleaning and disinfection of gastroendoscopes with 3% glutaraldehyde for decreasing risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus. Sakai, N., Tatsuta, M., Iishi, H., Yano, H., Osaka, S., Aoki, A. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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