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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of CYP2D6 in the N-hydroxylation of procainamide.

Sequential oxidations at the arylamine moiety of the procainamide molecule leading to the formation of N-hydroxyprocainamide and its nitroso derivative may be responsible for lupus erythematosus observed in patients treated with the drug. The objective of the present study was to characterize major cytochrome P450 isozyme(s) involved in the N-hydroxylation of procainamide. Firstly, incubations were performed with microsomes from either lymphoblastoid cells or yeast transfected with cDNA encoding for specific human cytochrome P450 isozymes. Experiments performed with these enzyme expression systems indicated that the highest formation rate of N-hydroxyprocainamide was observed in the presence of CYP2D6 enriched microsomes. Additional experiments demonstrated that the formation rate of N-hydroxyprocainamide by CYP2D6 enriched microsomes was decreased from 45 +/- 4% to 93 +/- 1% by quinidine at concentrations ranging from 30 nM to 100 microM (all p < 0.05 vs control) and by approximately 75% by antibodies directed against CYP2D6. Secondly, incubations were performed with microsomes prepared from 15 human liver samples. Using this approach, an excellent correlation was observed between the formation rate of N-hydroxyprocainamide and dextromethorphan O-demethylase activity (CYP2D6; r = 0.9305; p < 0.0001). In contrast, no correlation could be established between N-hydroxyprocainamide formation rate and caffeine N3-demethylase (CYP1A2), coumarin 7-hydroxylase (CYP2A6), S-mephenytoin N-demethylase (CYP2B6), tolbutamide methlhydroxylase (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase (CYP2C19), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase (CYP2E1), dextromethorphan N-demethylase (CYP3A4), testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase (CYP3A4/5) or lauric acid 12-hydroxylase (CYP4A11) activities. Furthermore, formation rate of N-hydroxyprocainamide was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by quinidine (300 nM to 100 microM) and by antibodies directed against CYP2D6 but not by furafylline 20 microM (CYP1A2), ketoconazole 1 microM (CYP3A4), sulfaphenazole 10 microM (CYP2C9) or antibodies directed against CYP1A1/1A2, CYP2C, CYP2A6, CYP2E1 or CYP3A4/3A5. In conclusion, the results obtained in the present study demonstrate that CYP2D6 is the major human cytochrome P450 isozyme involved in the formation of the reactive metabolite of procainamide, namely N-hydroxyprocainamide.[1]


  1. Role of CYP2D6 in the N-hydroxylation of procainamide. Lessard, E., Fortin, A., Bélanger, P.M., Beaune, P., Hamelin, B.A., Turgeon, J. Pharmacogenetics (1997) [Pubmed]
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