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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Altered cholesterol synthesis as a mechanism involved in methyl isobutyl ketone-potentiated experimental cholestasis.

Mechanisms by which ketones potentiate manganese-bilirubin (Mn-BR)-induced cholestasis are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of methyl isobutyl ketone (MiBK), a widely used ketonic solvent, at the level of the bile canalicular membrane (BCM) and to verify if altered membrane lipid dynamics could be involved in MiBK-potentiated Mn-BR cholestasis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed 4 hr/day for 3 days to MiBK vapors (200 or 600 ppm). Eighteen hours after the last exposure, manganese (Mn, 4.5 mg/kg) was given i.v. followed 15 min later by bilirubin (BR, 25 mg/kg). Rats were killed 30 min after BR; liver cell plasma membranes (bile canalicular and sinusoidal), microsomes, mitochondria, and cytosol were isolated by differential centrifugation. Lipids were extracted and cholesterol was measured in each fraction. After Mn-BR and MiBK exposure (600 ppm), results indicated a marked increase in BCM cholesterol content compared to rats exposed to air only. This increase was greater than that due to Mn-BR or MiBK given alone. Also, results indicated that cholesterol increased in a dose-related fashion in BCM after MiBK exposure, whereas PM cholesterol remained unaltered. To identify the source of the increased BCM cholesterol and to permit distinction between de novo cholesterol synthesis and subcellular shifts, the hepatic lipid pool was labeled in vivo with [3H]-cholesterol and [2-14C]-mevalonic acid, a cholesterol synthesis precursor. Results showed that after 600 ppm MiBK exposure, 14C-labeled cholesterol was greater than 3H-labeled cholesterol, indicating that the contribution of de novo cholesterol synthesis to the total cholesterol content of the various isolated hepatocellular fractions was more important than the contribution of intracellular pools. Therefore, increased BCM cholesterol content and enhanced accumulation of newly synthesized cholesterol appear to be involved in MiBK potentiation of Mn-BR-induced cholestasis.[1]


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