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Chemical Compound Review

MANGANESE     manganese

Synonyms: Magnacat, manganum, Cutaval, Tronamang, manganeso, ...
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Disease relevance of manganese

  • While essential biologic functions of Mn depend on its oxidation state [e.g., Mn(II), Mn(III)], little is known about how the oxidation state of elevated Mn exposures affect cellular uptake, and function/toxicity [1].
  • Mangan-enhanced MR imaging for the detection and localisation of small pancreatic insulinoma [2].

High impact information on manganese

  • This conclusion would be consistent with earlier spectroscopic analyses of D1-Glu189 mutants, but would require that the proximity of D1-Glu189 to manganese in the X-ray crystallographic structural models be an artifact of the radiation-induced reduction of the Mn(4) cluster that occurred during the collection of the X-ray diffraction data [3].
  • In the recent X-ray crystallographic structural models of photosystem II, Glu189 of the D1 polypeptide is assigned as a ligand of the oxygen-evolving Mn(4) cluster [3].
  • Interestingly, AzwK-3b is 100% identical (at the 16S rRNA gene level) to a previously described Pfiesteria-associated Roseobacter-like bacterium, which is not able to oxidize Mn(II) [4].
  • In contrast, Mn added as Mn(III) was significantly more effective in inhibiting total cellular aconitase activity, and intact PC12 cells accumulated significantly more Mn when exposures occurred as Mn(III) [1].
  • This study supports concern over increased environmental exposures to Mn in different oxidation states [Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV)] that may arise from combustion products of the gasoline antiknock additive methycyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of manganese

  • Notably, these differential effects of Mn(II) versus Mn(III) exposures on cellular toxicity could not simply be accounted for by the different cellular levels of manganese [5].

Biological context of manganese

  • Following exposure of mitochondrial fractions with Mn(II) or Mn(III), there was a significant inhibition by either Mn species in activities of Complex I whose active site contains five to eight [Fe-S] clusters [6].
  • Further studies on cell growth dynamics after exposure to 25-50 microM Mn in culture media demonstrated that the cell numbers were much reduced in Mn(III)-treated groups compared to Mn(II)-treated groups, suggesting that Mn(III) is more effective than Mn(II) in cell killing [6].
  • Cell viability and ATP levels both decreased at the highest Mn(II) and Mn(III) exposures (150-200 microM), while Mn(III) exposures produced increases in LDH activity at lower exposures (> or =50 microM) than did Mn(II) (200 microM only) [5].

Anatomical context of manganese

  • While previous antisense studies indicated that mMAP4 is necessary for normal myotube formation [Mangan and Olmsted, 1996: Development 122:771-781], these data indicate mMAP4 is not sufficient to induce the reorganization of MTs or the Golgi into patterns typical of muscle cells [7].
  • These include diffusion weighted imaging, measurements of magnetization transfer as a function of collagen concentration, proton density mapping to plot the distribution of water in hyaline cartilage and sodium imaging to visualize ions bound to proteoglycans or intraarticular application of Mangan selectively bound to proteoglycans [8].
  • The initial paper (Mangan et al. 1994) demonstrated that serotonin enhanced the participation of inhibitory swim motor neurons (MNs) in the generation of the swimming rhythm in the isolated nerve cord [9].
  • Serial dilutions of Mn(II) were prepared in distilled water, 4% human serum albumin, dog plasma, dog gallbladder bile, and dog hepatic bile [10].
  • Maintaining an oxidizing solution potential during extraction apparently precludes reduction of the higher oxidation states of Mn to the labile Mn(II) state by reducing agents released from the membranes during lysing [11].

Associations of manganese with other chemical compounds


Gene context of manganese

  • 4. In the absence of Mg2+, or in the presence of manganese (Mn2+) ions intracellularly, diazoxide did not induce KATP current activation, regardless of the species of nucleotide present in the pipette [13].
  • Different cellular responses to Mn(II) exposures compared to Mn(III) were also observed for H-ferritin, TfR, and MnSOD protein levels [5].
  • World AIDS Day. Men at work. Interview by Paul Mangan [14].
  • The Mn(4) complex which is involved in water oxidation in photosystem II is known to exhibit three types of EPR signals in the S(2) state, one of the five redox states of the enzyme cycle: a multiline signal (spin 1/2), signals at g5 (spin 5/2) and a signal at g=4.1 (or g=4.25) [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of manganese

  • An alternative explanation of the FTIR data is that D1-Glu189 does not ligate the Mn(4) cluster [3].


  1. Manganese oxidation state and its implications for toxicity. Reaney, S.H., Kwik-Uribe, C.L., Smith, D.R. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Mangan-enhanced MR imaging for the detection and localisation of small pancreatic insulinoma. Hamoud, A.K., Khan, M.F., Aboalmaali, N., Usadel, K.H., Wullstein, C., Vogl, T.J. European radiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. No evidence from FTIR difference spectroscopy that glutamate-189 of the D1 polypeptide ligates a Mn ion that undergoes oxidation during the S0 to S1, S1 to S2, or S2 to S3 transitions in photosystem II. Strickler, M.A., Hillier, W., Debus, R.J. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Coupled Photochemical and Enzymatic Mn(II) Oxidation Pathways of a Planktonic Roseobacter-Like Bacterium. Hansel, C.M., Francis, C.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Manganese oxidation state mediates toxicity in PC12 cells. Reaney, S.H., Smith, D.R. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential cytotoxicity of Mn(II) and Mn(III): special reference to mitochondrial [Fe-S] containing enzymes. Chen, J.Y., Tsao, G.C., Zhao, Q., Zheng, W. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Muscle-specific microtubule-associated protein 4 is expressed early in myogenesis and is not sufficient to induce microtubule reorganization. Casey, L.M., Lyon, H.D., Olmsted, J.B. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Overuse of hyaline cartilage and imaging. Trattnig, S. European journal of radiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Modulation of swimming behavior in the medicinal leech. IV. Serotonin-induced alteration of synaptic interactions between neurons of the swim circuit. Mangan, P.S., Cometa, A.K., Friesen, W.O. J. Comp. Physiol. A (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Influence of Mn(II) on NMR relaxation times of biological fluids. Barnhart, J.L., Berk, R.N., Andre, M. Physiological chemistry and physics and medical NMR. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Manganese proteins isolated from spinach thylakoid membranes and their role in O2 evolution. I. A 56 kilodalton managnese-containing protein, a probable component of the coupling factor enzyme. Abramowicz, D.A., Dismukes, G.C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Dynamic isomer shift in charge-ordering manganite Y(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3): Mössbauer spectroscopy study. Tian, H.W., Zheng, W.T., Zheng, B., Wang, X., Wen, Q.B., Ding, T., Zhao, Z.D. The journal of physical chemistry. B, Condensed matter, materials, surfaces, interfaces & biophysical. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Nucleotide-dependent activation of KATP channels by diazoxide in CRI-G1 insulin-secreting cells. Kozlowski, R.Z., Ashford, M.L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. World AIDS Day. Men at work. Interview by Paul Mangan. Bryan, G. Nursing times. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparative study of the g=4.1 EPR signals in the S(2) state of photosystem II. Boussac, A., Rutherford, A.W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
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