The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Functional retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors in human thyroid-carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

Thyroid carcinomas no longer accessible to radio-iodide or TSH-suppressive T4 therapy, due to loss of thyroid-specific functions, might be sufficiently re-differentiated by retinoic acid (RA) to be treated by conventional methods again. To help evaluate the feasibility of RA re-differentiation therapy in thyroid carcinomas, we examined the functionality of RA receptors (RARs/RXRs), central RA signal mediators, in human thyroid-carcinoma cell lines as model systems. [3H]-RA binding assays with nuclear extracts from follicular thyroid-carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and -238 revealed high-affinity binding sites for RA. Electrophoretic mobility shift and super-shift assays using a DR2 ("direct repeat" 2) RA response element demonstrated DNA-binding of RARalpha, RARgamma, RXRalpha and RXRbeta in nuclear extracts of FTC-133 and anaplastic HTh74 cells. Use of a DR5 RA response element revealed no difference in DNA binding. In supershift assays with a DR4 T3 response element, we found DNA-binding by TRalpha1, TRalpha2, and TRbeta. Northern-blot analysis showed low expression of RXRbeta mRNA in FTC-133 and of TRalpha1 mRNA in FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells. Using RT-PCR, we detected mRNA for RARalpha, RARbeta, RARgamma, RXRalpha, and RXRbeta in the 4 cell lines and in human thyroid-carcinoma samples. RARbeta mRNA was reduced in FTC-238 cells and RXRbeta mRNA was decreased in anaplastic C643 cells and 9 of 12 tumor samples. Differential RA regulation of RA-receptor-mRNA expression was observed in the various cell lines. Thus, RA and T3 nuclear receptors are present in thyroid-carcinoma cell lines or tissues, albeit with cell-line and tumor-dependent variations; in the cell lines, they were shown to be functional with respect to DNA and/or ligand binding.[1]


  1. Functional retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors in human thyroid-carcinoma cell lines and tissues. schmutzler, C., Brtko, J., Winzer, R., Jakobs, T.C., Meissner-Weigl, J., Simon, D., Goretzki, P.E., Köhrle, J. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities