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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Contractile and relaxant effects of tetrapentylammonium ions in rat isolated mesenteric artery.

Both contractile and relaxant responses to tetrapentylammonium ions (TPA+) were studied in rat isolated mesenteric artery. TPA+ (5-10 micromol/l) caused a sustained increase of muscle tension. The contractile effect of TPA+ (10 micromol/l) was dependent upon the presence of extracellular Ca2+ but independent of the presence of endothelium. TPA+ (10-50 micromol/l) induced biphasic contraction, and the amplitude of peak and sustained tension decreased with increasing TPA+ concentration. TPA+ (100-300 micromol/l) only produced monophasic contraction. TPA+ (50 micromol/l) abolished the transient contraction induced by caffeine (10 mmol/l) or phenylephrine (1 micromol/l) in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Nifedipine and verapamil concentration-dependently reduced the TPA+-induced contraction with respective IC50 values of 1.34 +/- 0. 24 and 9.46 +/- 1.36 nmol/l, these values were similar to 1.35 +/- 0. 21 and 16.07 +/- 1.71 nmol/l, respectively, for the inhibitory effects of nifedipine and verapamil on the high K+ (60 mmol/l)-induced contraction. TPA+ (>10 micromol/l) concentration-dependently reduced the phenylephrine (1 micromol/l)-, U46619 (30 nmol/l)-, endothelin I (10 nmol/l)- and high K+ (60 mmol/l)-induced sustained tension with respective IC50 values of 53. 7 +/- 9.5, 31.9 +/- 5.3, 30.9 +/- 3.4 and 20.9 +/- 2.8 micromol/l. The present results indicate that TPA+ at low concentrations could contract the arterial smooth muscle probably through promoting Ca2+ influx. At higher concentrations (>20 micromol/l), TPA+ relaxes arterial smooth muscle probably through inhibition of both nifedipine-sensitive Ca+ channels and internal Ca2+ release. TPA+, unlike other quaternary ammonium ions, could therefore act at multiple sites in arterial smooth muscle.[1]


  1. Contractile and relaxant effects of tetrapentylammonium ions in rat isolated mesenteric artery. Kwok, K.H., Chan, N.W., Lau, C.W., Huang, Y. Pharmacology (1998) [Pubmed]
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